The Primacy of the Affective
over the Cognitive
Dr. Leon James
Dr. Diane Nahl
This is a working paper that we have been extending
and restructuring for several years. It will no doubt continue on this developmental
process for a few more years!
In psychology there is an important debate that has not yet
been resolved by generations of researchers. This is the question whether the affective or
the cognitive is primary.
To say that the affective is primary is to say that
feelings cause thoughts. Or, that feelings direct thoughts. Or, that thoughts are from
feelings. Or, first there is a feeling -- then there is a thought. Etc.
To say that the cognitive is primary is to say that
thoughts cause feelings. Or, that thoughts direct feelings. Or, that feelings are from
thoughts . Or, first there is a thought -- then there is a feeling. Etc.
It is easy to see why some psychologists say that feelings
are from thoughts. This is exactly what it looks like to external observation. For
instance, we can observe ourselves get angry when we recall an unpleasant situation. It
seems then that first, the unpleasant thought comes into our awareness, second, we react
to it emotionally. Or, in another situation, we ask someone to explain why an action and
the person replies "I thought he was picking on me, so I felt bad and left." It
seems here that, first the person has a thought or conclusion ("he is picking on
me"), and second, an affective reaction ("so I felt bad").
refers to this appearance of the cognitive being primary as the Jacob and Esau story. In
the Old Testament of the Bible, Jacob and Esau were twin brothers born to Isaac and
Rebecca. Esau was positioned to be born first, but at the last moment, Jacob displaced him
and was born first. In the language of spiritual-natural correspondences, all names,
objects, and events have reference to the mind or spirit. Jacob always refers to the
cognitive and Esau to the affective. The significance of this historical episode, as
analyzed by Swedenborg, is that the affective (Esau) is primary in reality, but in
appearance, as viewed externally, the cognitive (Jacob) is seen first.
The drama of Jacob scrambling to come out ahead of Esau
represents the battle we have in becoming wise and loving adults. As children, we begin
life in apparent innocence. We are lovable and attractive affective (right-brained)
creatures. Our appeal as infants lies in the fact that we are happy to obey the wisdom (or
cognitive) of the adults and authority figures. With an immature cognitive, an infant has
no other choice but to obey the rule of authority, and their willingness to do so
(affective) makes them irresistible to most parents and adults.
Things begin to go wrong at around the age of 7 or 8, when
the permanent "adult" teeth push their way out, and the young individual begins
a life of cognitive independence. Now the child suddenly changes interaction styles
and begins to act like "I'm in business for myself now." It ushers in the age of
arguments. For a young mind, this developmental phase begins the Golden Age of the
Cognitive. The mind's computing power grows at a dizzying rate. The cognitive soars
into the stratosphere of self-reliance and becomes rebellious to authority, disdainful of
tradition, and fills itself with fake sentiments of grandeur or dejection. It is the
period of Jacob setting forth in life and doing his thing no matter who gets stepped on.
In human development, the cognitive appears to be first. But this is an illusion, like the
appearance that the sun moves around us instead of the other way round. It is a
characteristic of the mind that thoughts are more visible to our awareness than feelings.
We are expected to know what we are thinking about something (that's part of one's IQ),
but only mature well-put together people know how they feel about many things. When we act
like thoughts precede feelings, that is, when feelings remain invisible in the background,
we operating in full or partial blindness.
This state of mind and character is represented by the wily
Jacob who maneuvers himself to come out of the birth canal first, talks Esau out of his
birth right, deceives his old father into giving him the blessing intended for Esau,
enriches himself at the expense of his uncle Lavan who hires him to tend his flock, and so
on. But in the end, reality prevails. In adult life, Jacob fears Esau, humbles himself
before him and calls him "My Lord." This is the recognition of the cognitive
that the affective is in reality primary.
What about the appearances? The famous James-Lange theory
of emotions says that first, we see a bear, then we decide it is dangerous, as a result of
which our adrenaline begins to pump, which we then sense in our body, which feels like
fear, and that finally makes us run away. The sequence seems to be:
The Apparent (not Real) Sequence
external stimulus ----->cognitive interpretation----->physiological
response----->sensing physiological response----->affective state----->sensorimotor
Without prejudice, let us try to accept the other model,
namely where the affective is primary, and see if we can give a rational account of events
as we can observe them. We see a bear. Assuming it is unexpected and unchained, we become
aware of our thoughts -- "what's it doing here; it's unchained; it's mad; it's gonna
get me, etc." In fact however, the sight of the bear instantly arouses the affective,
whose explosive activity gives rise to these various thoughts. This scenario requires the
assumption that the affective is faster, more differentiated, more integrated, and less
visible to awareness than the cognitive.
The Real (not Apparent) Sequence
external stimulus ----->differentiated affective
states----->congruent cognitive interpretations----->physiological
responses----->sensing physiological responses----->sensorimotor acts
Thus, in reality differentiated affective states pre-exist
as person variables and these are selectively OCCASIONED under appropriate sensory input.
Once these affective states are selected or occasioned, it selects from the
available cognitive hierarchies and items that are CONGRUENT with the already existing
affective states. These congruent cognnitive interpretations or understandings or
meanings (powered from within by the affective state), THEN elicit specific physiological
responses that one can sense through feedback and they alos come out into overt action
(senorimotor acts) unless inhibited by contrary or ambivalent affective states that are
unconsciously occasioned by the same sensory input. These unconscious
affective-sensorimotor connections are established as part of the individual's ontogeny
and cultural experiences.
The sequence affective--->cognitive--->sensorimotor
is found everywhere in Swedenborg's writings, as in the following samples:
Swedenborg was always meticulous in respecting the primacy
of the affective. In the paragraph quoted above (DLW 384), the following stands out:
Moreover, the brain itself is divided into two hemispheres,
the heart into two ventricles, and the lungs into two lobes; the right of all these having
relation to the good of truth, and the left to the truth of good, or, what is the same,
the right having relation to the good of love from which is the truth of wisdom, and the
left having relation to the truth of wisdom which is from the good of love.
Note his care with the expressions "the good of
truth" and "the truth of good." First, he specifies that "the good of
truth" (right brain) is the same as "the good of love from which is the truth of
wisdom." Translating, we have "the affective of the cognitive" = "the
affective from which is the cognitive." It is thus explicitly stated that the
cognitive is from the affective. The affective is primary. Second, it is specified
that "the truth of good" (left brain) is the same as "the truth of wisdom
which is from the good of love." Once again the directionality is strictly
maintained: the cognitive (truth or wisdom) is from the affective (good or love).
There are many more such passages, as discussed
in this entry.
The unconscious connections between the affective states
and their sensorimotor instantiations are established by two human growth
mechanisms where the cognitive is as-if bypassed, and feelings or emotions trigger
sensations and acts that remain unconscious to the individual, but is visible to others.
One is the formation of basic personality habits, moods, and temperaments in
childhood prior to the talking phase or not much further beyond (up to age 4 on the
average). The other is from automaticity of habits that were conscious in their
formation and early use, but sunk into the unconscious due to cessation of conscious
monitoring. Examples are:
- the gate or manner of walking
- the facial expressions that accompany conversation
- the characteristic manner of reacting to some things that
others can witness
- the way we drive (aggressive, competitive, supportive)
- our ethnic traits (religion, eating, lifestyle, political
ideology, discourse patterns)
As individuals mature over the decades, a series of
sensorimotor instantiations are triggered in relation to sequence and biographical
teleology or spiritual fate known to God who directs the progression in its least details.
without this divine intelligent and purposive management, the teleology would be
impossible and the entire scheme would be sytematically downgraded by the second universal
law of thermodynamics (chaos). But the opposite actually takes place: less
chaos, more order towards an ideal goal or end. This end has been revealed to us by
God--see my article on dualism in science.
This process of unconscious, sequenced, and ethnic sensorimotor instantiations can be called GENETIC CULTURE. Objective methods of
investigating genetic culture include:
self-witnessing methods involving
community-classroom methods involving
methods of community cataloguing practices
See also this statement:
Effects of Mere Exposure: a Comment on Zajonc's Attitudinal
Swedenborg Glossary | Back to Leon James
Back to Quotes from the
Works of Leon James | Back to Leon James Home
e-mail Leon James