Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) is the author of about two hundred serious scientific works on anatomy, psychology, and natural science. These have been translated into English and other languages from the original Latin by a steady but small number of Swedenborgian scholars and followers of the life philosophy he advocates. Some of the works are short journal articles but there are also about fifty titles of full length books. One of these runs to 12 volumes, another six volumes. Those who have surveyed these writings are of the near unanimous opinion that they present a holistic and coherent account of human behavior and of the life after death (Trobridge; Van Dusen; Odhner; Block ). What makes Swedenborg's approach particularly interesting to psychology is that it is an early form of behaviorism, functionalism, and organicity. This last is the premise that all functions of the mind must have a structural basis and must work together synergistically.
A unique feature of Swedenborg's approach is that the structural substances of the mind were defined as "spiritual substances." These originate and belong to the "spiritual world." When we are born, we are born into two worlds simultaneously, the natural, which is physical and temporary, and the spiritual, which is permanent (or 'eternal'). This dual citizenship is hidden from ordinary perceptions, but upon death of the physical body, the person 'resuscitates' or awakens in the spiritual body and then lives with others in that world for ever. The individual retains his or her appearance, personality, and memory of experiences and skills. (Note: there is more to this as you can read from this article on spiritual psychology.) These and many other details are related by Swedenborg as eyewitness reports he brought back from the afterlife or spiritual world. He asserts that he was called by Divine intervention to write from the perspective of a well known 18th century scientist all the things he could learn from the afterlife, and its connection to this life; for this purpose he was uniquely empowered to live in both worlds simultaneously for the last 27 years of his long and venerable life. See Swedenborg's letters here, including several autobiographical statements he makes about himself and his mission.
Swedenborg continued to be productive in this world during his simultaneous life in both worlds. Not only did he continue to publish both types of works scientific and otherworldly or theological but he also continued in his job as Royal Assessor of Mines, an important engineering post in the Swedish government, and as well, continued to be active in the Swedish House of Lords where he was author of several influential bills on economy, the coinage system, alcoholism, and education (Swedenborg Foundation ). At first his other-worldly books were published anonymously; later however, it was discovered that he was the eminent author of a series of books on the afterlife, after which he openly spoke of his experiences. Some biographers express general skepticism regarding the unique nature of Swedenborg's claim in the history of humankind. In all fairness there is difficulty in processing Swedenborg's system in its entirety in order to arrive at some objective judgment. By contrrast, we get a totally sympathetic evaluation of Swedenborg when the reviewers are familiar with his writings as a totality, rather than from selections or from the literature about Swedenborg, which is considerable.
(Note: Speaking in May 2000, almost twenty years after this article was written, I'm still here, studying Swedenborg's Writings and creating a Glossary of Swedenborg's Scientific Concepts. As a serious and hopefully lifelong student of the Writings, I have undergone intellectual and spiritual changes beyond all that I have ever read or imagined, and this unbelievable and amazing effect is available to any serious reader of the Writings of Swedenborg. How wonderful it is that all his Theological Writings are now available for reading and searching by anyone (see here for the link to NewSearch).
It is interesting to note that a number of well known American & British writers and influential thinkers have revealed in private letters or less well known of their publications, the fact that they had read or studied Swedenborg writings, and that they were greatly influenced by them. The list is quite long, but include among others, Balzac, Berlioz, Blake, A.Conan Doyle, Emerson, Goethe, Victor Hugo, Henry James, William James, Jung, Helen Keller, Maeterlinck, J. F. Oberlin, E.A. Poe, Ezra Pound, D. Suzuki, Yeats. As well, there are a number of stable communities or suburbs in the United States and Canada, and elsewhere, that are formed by people who consider Swedenborg's writings as the Word of God since much of it consists of an explication of the Christian Bible (Old and New Testaments), and Swedenborg asserts that his observations or visions of the spiritual world was accomplished by a process similar to the process undergone by the prophets who wrote the books of the Bible. He also asserted that this type of knowledge is not available to anyone except through Divine intervention or revelation. Here is an extensive treatment of the subject of scientific revelations with links to more articles.
Swedenborg's case is unique in the history of science. As one of the most eminent and rational scientist of the Age of Reason in 18th century Europe, Swedenborg was very well acquainted with the history of Western science, its grounding in empiricism, its preference for formalism, and its negative attitude toward theology. It is within this scientific skepticism that Swedenborg attempts to present his unique experience. He is very well aware of the need to meet essential criteria of scientific inquiry; which include coherence, consistency, and rationality (as I argue in this article on objections to Swedenborg)
Whatever is already known must be taken into account by the proposed system. Swedenborg used all the anatomy and physiology of his day to specify the mindstructures or mindorgans of the spiritual body. This was made possible by his astounding discovery that the human body is a functional effect of the spiritual body. We have a head because the spiritual body has a head; we have circulation of the blood because the spiritual body has circulation of the blood; and so on down to the most minute biochemical process in the body and genetic structures. Swedenborg anticipated genetics and neuroanatomy on the biological side, and on the chemicalphysical side he anticipated nebular formation, magnetism, and relativity. His biographers and followers assert that Swedenborg's writings will only be mined fully in the future when science is ready to accept the concept of dual citizenship. As a result of this new scientific approach they predict a boon to mankind and a greatly accelerated progress of civilization and human evolution.
This article will focus on Swedenborg's rational psychology. This perspective on human behavior anticipates the contemporary focus of American psychology. It is consistent with the major schools of psychological thinking and method as represented by behaviorism, functionalism, gestalt, psychodynamic, and humanistic psychologies. This unusual communality is not due to eclecticism but to an overlap in fundamentals and basics of the scientific view of human behavior as it is evolved consistently in two thousand years of Western scholarship, literature, drama, philosophy, art, and science. In its most general paradigm, rational psychology distinguishes between three interconnected levels of human behavior.
These are the will, the understanding, and the sensorimotor effects of these two. The will was defined as an organ analogous to the mind what the to the body. The substance of this organ was entirely spiritual. Swedenborg used terms such as spheres, fluids, heat, ether, corpuscles, states, and affections, to refer to the organic, spiritual substances of the will's biochemistry. The activities of the will were divided into two types: those from within and those from without. In Swedenborg's system, that which is prior in origin is called within, and that which is posterior, is called without. For example, the heat of the sun is prior to the growth of the seed in the ground; the heat is a causative factor in the growth of the seed. The heat is within, the seed is without. Or else, as we shovel snow, the motive is prior to the act, and so we can say that the motive is within the act while the act proper is without or external. Now concerning the organ of the will, it receives input from within and it transmits that input below itself or into the external world.
The will thus has a double connection. It is connected to the spiritual world from
within and it is connected to the natural world from without. Stimuli come into the will
from within and go out into the body from without. The body is while the spirit or mind
the two being in functional relation. Swedenborg presents the view that the understanding
is midway between the will and the body. He defines the chain of causation in behavior as
In contemporary language we would say that motivation and drive (the "will") originate and maintain behaviors, cognitive processes (the "understanding") serve as a means or instrument to carry out the motive, and sensorimotor activities such as actions and sensations carry out the intent of the goal in the external world. The motive and the plan are not in this world but rather in the spiritual world. Modern psychologists dealing with the issue of the mind tend to see it as insubstantial or an epiphenomenon of the brain, destroy the brain and you've destroyed the mind. However Swedenborg argued on rational grounds that a function cannot exist in a vacuum; that there must be an organic or substantive basis for all functions of the mind and body. He was therefore unwilling to call the mind an epiphenomenon; instead, he took the other scientific alternative which is that the mind is organic but of organic substances not detectable by physical senses. So upon considering the locus or essence of thought and feeling, Swedenborg postulated the existence of the spiritual world and our simultaneous and functional dual citizenship. Years later his hypothesis was confirmed empirically when he was introduced into the spiritual world and shown its reality. He then was able to talk to several of his dead acquaintances as well as to a number of well known men of history such as the Socratic group. Cicero, the Apostles, Lutller, Leibnitz, and many others. It appears from his reports of these conversations that these people had similar views and personality to those known about them in history. As well, Swedenborg was able to observe that the shape of space in the other world is that of the human body. He visually confirmed the observation when he was offered the view from a large distance of the multitude of societies in the spiritual world; they are ordered into the shape and structure of what he called "The Grand Man" of Heaven.
THE THREE LEVELS OF BEHAVIOR
Despite the variety of theories and methods in psychology there is a general overlap among them, and this commonality may be taken as stable over the changing history of schools of psychology. Some examples may be given by considering the overlap between Freud, Skinner, and Rogers, these three being the representatives of separate yet widespread schools with in the twentieth century psychology. All three agree that affective behavior is the key to understanding the individual. Freud looks for data in his clients, in their memories, in their free associations, in the symbolism of their dreams, and in the slips of the tongue. Contemporary psychiatry also emphasizes gestures, style of conduct, and drugs. In all of this activity the professional goal is to alter the individual's affective states, moods, and drive level. Skinner makes the process of reinforcement the kingpin of his behavioristic technology. Reward schedules and the management of available social reinforcers are the principal techniques of behaviorists for modifying behavior. In other words, by controlling people's affective needs (= social rewards), the behavior technologist brings about modification in behavior. The control of affective needs is for Skinner and Freud the key to the modification of behavior. The same may be said about Rogers whose concept of unconditional regard specifies the affective behaviors between two people: whether one values the other, whether they can honestly express feelings with one another, whether there is acceptance of each other's wishes, and so on. All these concerns of the humanistic therapist or counselor clearly relate to the clients' affective states or behaviors.
There is a second area of overlap between widely differing schools of psychology. This is the general principle that cognitive behavior is an intervening or mediate activity between the impulse or motive to act and the performance of the act. Freud's theory specified the areas of cognitive behaviors calling them by names such as the unconscious, the subconscious, the ego, and so on. Freud was clearly concerned with how unconscious affective needs were transformed into cognitive obsessions and delusions. Skinner gave the area of thinking a major role in his behavioristic programs of social engineering. Thinking was defined
as implicit or private verbal behavior, and verbal behavior was defined as behavior that affects others through discourse. Discourse was defined as operants under the control of social reinforcers. Once again we see here the general view that human affective behaviors (=social reinforcers) are in connection with human cognitive behavior (= implicit or private operants). In the case of Rogers, it is also clear that verbal behavior in the form of discourse and gestures is the principal method by which affective needs and habits are modified. Here too, the affective behavior is connected to the cognitive behavior (= having a good opinion of someone). Many labels are used for cognitive behavior by the varying schools. Psychodynamic schools use the terms m_ al health, psychic pressure, cognitive dissonance, disordered thinking. Poor concentration and lack of knowledge. conflicting attitudes, strong opinions, illogical reasoning, and so on. Behavioristic schools use the terms thinking, verbal behavior, private operants, self reinforcement, self directed sentences, prompts, cues, discriminant stimuli, brain activity, mediation reactions, reminders, and so on. Rogesrians use terms such as cognitive, mental, thoughts, intellectual, figuring it out, problem, anxiety, head trip, inner, and so on.
It is clear then that psychologists in general agree that human behavior is directed from the level of affective habits (or habitual states) and is thence interconnected with a lower level of cognitive habits (or mental states). Now we come to the third area of overlap, what will be recognized by all as the level of sensorimotor behavior. Freudian analysts get paid for results; these effects of therapy must by visible in the individuals' sensory or motor life. For example, emotions (which are private sensations) may be altered; anxiety (also a private sensory experience) may be diminished in intensity and frequency of occurrence; verbal statements about the self may improve, certain acts or tics or avoidance responses are no longer there; general muscle tension is lessened; blood pressure or heart rate may show a different daily pattern; and so on.
In fact, these sensorimotor effects are used by all therapists and counselors to assess the effectiveness of the therapy or the change occurring in the client. Skinnerians measure numerous sensorimotor effects of intervention programs: motor movements in relation to target behaviors, rate of completion, frequency of errors, resistance to extinction, degree of generalization, and so on. Rogersians watch gestures, tone of voice, position of the body, verbal claims and complaints, preference choices, enthusiasm, and so on. We may conclude this survey, then, by saying that psychologists work with the practical idea that behavior is organized in three levels; first in importance is the individual's affective behavior; second, in the role of intermediary, is the individual's cognitive behavior; and third, in the role of effects or results, is the individual's sensorimotor behavior. It is interesting to note here that this threefold schema for human behavior was explicitly held by earlier thinkers, going back to Aristotle. A notable personage of the eighteenth century, Emanuel Swedenborg (16881772), has catalogued human behavior in these three levels and developed an extensive and integrated psychology based on what he called the will, the understanding, and uses. The will was defined as the origin of affections, loves, motives, inclinations, and all impulses to act. This clearly corresponds to what contemporary psychologists call affective behavior (or motivational drives and goaldirection). The understanding was defined as all forms of intellectual activity, reasoning, judgment, and rationality. So this level clearly corresponds with what we call today cognitive behavior or mental activity (also: private verbal behavior). Swedenborg defined uses as the locus where the will is satisfied. For example, we reach for the glass to drink it; this is the motive, goal, or impulse of the will, or voluntary freedom. The affective behavior is the tendency to reach at certain times, and not at other times. The cognitive behavior, or understanding, is the means or method through which we accomplish the goal; here, the habits acquired in reaching, timing, perception, etc. The use is the end result of the impulse acting through the
habit; thus, it is some sensory or motor activity which is in functional relation to the impulse and habit. Here, the attainment of the goal when the glass is grasped, or when the glass is brought to the lips, or when the liquid is being ingested. Again, to want to drink when thirsty is the affective behavior (all wants are affective needs); to be able to reach for the glass without spilling etc., is the cognitive behavior (prior learning is required); and finally, to ingest the liquid, swallow, sense the taste and temperature, etc. is the sensorimotor behavior (sensorimotor apparatus is in operation). The following chart (1) summarizes Swedenborg's behaviorism and ties it in with contemporary psychology. For additional discussion on the affective, see bottom links.
DEDUCTIONS FROM SWEDENBORG's LAWS OF THE OTHER WORLD
The question has been raised by Sedenborg's biographers (e.g., Trobridge, 19 ) as to why believe the matters this unique man has brought back to us from the other world? Swedenborgians today, like Trobridge, give as an answer to this question the argument that the system Swedenborg erected is entirely rational, with no contradictions, and capable of giving answers to all the old theological and philosophical issues; finally, the system is entirely compatible with Western scientific attitudes of materialism, functionalism, and organicity. Surely this is indeed a powerful answer and those of the modern world that have examined this claim in detail, like clinical psychologist Wilson Van Dusen 19 ; 19 and New Church educator and philosopher Hugo Lj. Odhner (1960;1968), found not a single contradiction in Swedenborg's system that is expounded in some 30 volumes in modern English translations! This writer has personally examined the bulk of this work, a full time job that took five years to accomplish, and found no internal contradictions; as well, the claim that the system is biologically based is also correct. Swedenborg was an accomplished and well published scientist and public figure in Sweden in the 18th century. His expertise includes accomplishments in anatomy, brain functions, perception, sensation, instrument construction, metallurgy, and astronomy, to name but a few. It is because of the rational and objective character of his system that enabled Swedenborgian ideas to have a strong influence on many thinkers of the l9th and 20th centuries. This list of selfacknowledged influence by Swedenborg is very long, but just to mention a few, it includes Balzac, Berlioz, William Blake, Robert Browning, Thomas Carlyle, Coleridge, Emerson, Benjamin Franklin, Goethe, Victor Hugo, Henry James, William James, Jung, Kant, Helen Keller, Maeterlinck, George Bernard Shaw, Thoreau, Yeats (Swedenborg Foundation, 1984).
Granted that Swedenborg's ideas and reports of the other world were deeply influential of American thinking the question remains an open one for science. Note the absence of scientists in the list. William James is a notable exception.
In a talk delivered at the turn of the century, James (1956) refers to Swedenborg's system and attempts to show that the concept of survival of consciousness after death is not contrary to scientific psychology, and especially, the accepted principle that consciousness is a function of the brain. James points out that there are two types of functions: productive and transmissive. Steam is productively a function of the tea kettle or other boiling apparatus; but the rainbow color stripe is transmissively a function of the prism or other refracting medium. Or, power is a productive function of the waterfall, but forced tonal air emerging from the organ with its characteristic sound is a transmissive. function of the instrument. In a productive function, if you destroy the means of production, you destroy the product; but in a transmissive function, if you destroy the means of production, you do not destroy the product. A modern day example of transmissive function is the relation between radio program and radio; destroy the radio, if you will, but the program still exists.
Now what about the dictum that "Thought is a function of the brain"? James points out that with this question one can logically and scientifically be in either camp. If you espouse the camp that believes that thought is a productive function of the brain (e.g., Uttall, 19 ), you must conclude that when the brain is destroyed, so is thinking and feeling; you must deny that immortality can be a scientific concept. However, if you espouse the camp that believes that thinking and feeling are transmissive functions of the brain, then you must conclude that immortality is a possible scientific concept. It is only fair to mention here that James, after giving this proof, then declares his personal predilection to be in the productive camp. Nevertheless, the proof he presents appears correct. Table 1 lists contemporary psychologists and neuroscientists who have advanced scientific concepts that are compatible with the transmissive camp.
It is interesting to review the advantages which James discussed in relation to the transmissive system. First, there is the advantage of face validity: it is useful for scientists to have theories that agree with common sense and the rest of society. This point is relevant today. For instance, though the majority of undergraduates indicate they pray regularly, there is nothing they can find on praying in their psychology texts except a ridiculing of it, as is the case for instance with Skinner, who officially calls praying a "superstitious behavior." There is a growing interest among American psychologists in "religious issues" (and an APA Division) as shown by an increasing number of textbooks and periodicals. James mentions a second advantage to serious scientific concepts of death: we are forced to consider the issues on their own terms and come up with theories of the character of the other world and its relation to this world. He mentions Swedenborg's concept of "influx" as a possibility. This is the theory that natural forms limit the spiritual influx streaming into them from within. This is analogous to the radio: the turning of the dial changes the state of the condenser; in each state (indexed by a numbering system) the receptivity is different, so that changing the condenser state alters the radio frequencies it is receptive to. The radio wave system is in fact an influx that is constantly present within the sphere of the radio as objects; but this influx is received differently depending of the state of the radio components. Similarly, the brain is within a sphere whereby influx from the other world within) constantly streams into it, but it receives parts of this influx in accordance with the state in which the brain is, or the states of its component parts. As James puts it, "And when finally a brain stops acting altogether, or decays, that special stream of consciousness which it subserved will vanish entirely from this natural world. But the sphere of being that supplied the consciousness would still be intact; and in that more real world with which, even whilst here, it was continuous, the consciousness might, in ways unknown to us, continue still." (1898/1956, p.l8).
When James wrote above that the afterlife might continue "in ways unknown" he nevertheless had been exposed by his father, Henry James, the elder, to Swedenborg's system of which he was an ardent public defender (Beck, 1933). Though he chose not to incorporate Swedenborg's spiritual psychobiology in his influential textbook of 1897, James nevertheless staunchly and publicly defended the scientific possibility of Swedenborg's system. In the Preface to the Second Edition of Human Immortality, James is concerned about "many critics (who) have made one and the same objection to the doorway to immortality which my lecture claims to be left open by the 'transmissiontheory' of cerebral action" (James, 1898/1956). The objection is that "if our finite personality here below, be due to the transmission through the brain of portions of a preexisting larger consciousness, all that can remain after the brain expires is the larger consciousness itself as such, with which we should thenceforth be perforce reconfounded, the only means of our existence in finite personal form having ceased." (Preface). The objectors feared that James has thus eliminated the Christian idea of immortality "which means survival in strictly personal form." Today, there is a trend in the humanistically oriented new field of transpersonal psychology to find it acceptable to contemplate the dissolution of personal life at death into the "mothersea" (to use the old expression used by James), and is even used in counseling activities for the dying (Arkoff, 1984). James, however, is intent on satisfying the popular need for concepts that insure the personal survival of every unique individual. James counters by saying that "one may conceive the mental world behind the veil in as individualistic as one pleases, without any detriment to the general scheme by which the brain is represented as a transmissive organ." (Preface) He points out that "there might be many minds behind the scenes as well as one" which is a reference, no doubt, to the Swedenborgian view that the surviving individuals after death in this world remain connected to those still living in this world (Swedenborg, 1756; Odhner, 1960).
Two things shall be attempted in the remaining of this paper. First, to examine what
character a theory needs to be for it to be scientific; and second, to examine elements of
Swedenborg's system to decide whether or not they conform to the requisites of a
scientific theory. It will be shown that indeed it does, and therefore, we have before us
the possibility of a major breakthrough in psychology. This is especially an exciting
possibility for behaviorists since they have been left behind by Jung's subjectivism or by
the current transpersonal psychology movement which behaviorists find too
phenomenological. In Swedenborg's system, on the other hand, the behaviorist finds
concepts that are not merely phenomenological, but as well, carefully grounded in
biology, anatomy, physiology, perception, and motivational psychodynamics. THE
CRITERIA FOR A SCIENTIFIC THEORY
There are more than one way to draw a list but there ought to be some significant core overlap between them, one that satisfies the various subareas of psychology. We may take Freud's theory of the structure of the self as an example. Is it a scientific theory? In general we would say that it is a scientific theory, though we might quickly add that it is not a very thorough one since it cannot be experimentally investigated. But how do we know that Freud's theory is in general scientific? What about mental telepathy? What about creationism? T distinguish between a workable scientific theory and one that is unworkable my today's standards, we might evaluate each theory on the basis of these five criteria: 1. Organicity. The proposed theory must be biologically grounded. Gone are the days when an author can propose a theory of behavior in thin air, like mental telepathy or astrological personality theory. The APA approved licensing procedures for clinical psychologists certifies that trained psychotherapists must have a sufficiently thorough knowledge in the biological and medical sciences. This general practice shows the fact that today's standards in psychology insist that psychological theories be biologically based. It will be shown below that Swedenborg's theory meets this requirement, and does so in a highly specific way unlike Freud whose Id/Ego/Superego structure had but vague biological definitions based on the analogy of a plumbing system in the body. Swedenborg was the recipient of training by the finest European anatomists of the 17th and 18th centuries and used this knowledge in the system he erected.
2. Objective Reality. The proposed theory must be verifiable by interpersonal observation and group discussion and recognition. The trouble with establishing ESP as real has been that it is not explorable on a routine basis. This problem eliminates ESP as a possible behavioral theory occupying the normal scientific of hundreds, even thousands, of scientists. Freud's theory is somewhat better off than ESP since thousands of scientifically oriented psychiatrists and psychologists have found it workable in their day to day professional practice. Still, this is not good enough for the behaviorist who demands a more traditional and researchable methodology. It will be shown that Swedenborg's system is based on a universal psychological and biological consensus which he called correspondences and which gave rise to metaphor in the evolutionary development of mankind. Swedenborg's system is evolutionary, developmental, biological, and observable by any one who is willing to acquire the skill of selfwitnessing which gives one the ability to perceive one's own cognitive and affective reactions to events.
3. Operational Definitions. The proposed theory must offer concrete measurement procedures for assessing the magnitude of effects indexed by dependent measures under various known independent conditions. This is a standard requirement today and no article without it will be approved for publication in any of the main APA or nonAPA journals of respect to the profession. This is where Freud's rich theories did not do well in the long run; his system is often ridiculed by some behaviorists and presented as a hilarious attempt far inferior to today's so called rigid standards. At any rate, it is to be noted that when Freud's theories, or parts thereof, were redefined to permit operational definitions, the result was quite fruitful in research that is of acceptable standards (e.g., Adorno et. al., 19 ). Swedenborg was both a product and an architect of modern science. He was not only an anatomist and physiologist, but an instrument maker, engineer, and legislator. His precise professional training and job demands required operationalizing his ideas into rock bottom precision. He specifies both the specific forces that
tie the two worlds together and the transition stages that allow each individual person to go from this temporary life into a preexisting eternal life. Over and over again he presents the observations he made over a 27year period concerning how long it takes to wake up in the other world, what are the attendant conditions, who is present, what are people's reactions when they wake up, what they take from here and how, and so on, as will be shown below.
4. Empiricism. Neither ESP nor Freud, nor Jung, nor Erikson, and so on, can deliver adequately on this criterion. The proposed theory to be scientifically viable by today's behavioristic or functional standards, the theory must be able to grow through the of others. There must be a cumulative possibility so that the theory becomes better and better, or more and more thorough and comprehensive, and capable of encompassing all forms of research interests among behaviorists. A good example of a theory that meets this standard is social learning theory in its various formats (Staats, 19 ). Swedenborg's approach is thoroughly empirical and practical, as will be shown below. One of the refreshing aspects of his approach is that every step must be understood and verified by the person's own experience. This is not the case with Freudians since their system specifically excludes the possibility of selfawareness, and so raises the sociomoral and political issue of, Can someone else tell you about your own inmost affections and motives? Behaviorists are uncomfortable with interpretations that confirm a symbolism that is unverifiable except other true believers. Swedenborg insisted on empirical verification prior to acceptance. He championed the rational approach to theology and religion and fought bitterly against the dogma of his Protestant Church. His empiricism was impeccable having succeeded in proving what thousands of brilliant Bible scholars were unable to do for a thousand years before him. With the use of his own system of crossreferences of Bible verses Swedenborg proves that the language of the Bible contains coded messages regarding the psychological stages of development in the deep religious process of transformation called regeneration.
What a remarkable achievement! Surely he will receive many posthumous scientific awards, once the world begins to realize the magnitude of the human revolution contained in the writings he left behind as a legacy for humankind. The system of correspondences discovered by Swedenborg is said by him to be actually the first type of human knowledge or science on the planet, ages ago. The earliest writings according to Swedenborg's observations of the other world consist of this narrative technique. The Egyptian hieroglyphics originated from this code of spiritualnatural correspondences. It will be shown below that the laws of correspondences are empirically discoverable and confirmable, and that they thus offer an empirical language for the operational definition of every psychospiritual concept in the theory. 5. Usefulness. In today's world of accountability and big budget deficits it is imperative that the proposed theory have a good possibilities for payoff in terms of community or client delivery of services. Freud's theory has done very well by this criterion since it created a psychiatric profession, a methodology of psychodiagnostic testing that is accepted by our court system, if not yet by scientists. By this criterion ESP is useless and so is the much discussed NDEA phenomenon in the medical field ( ). Modeling theory within social learning theory has in contrast yielded important applications in education, industry, and therapy (Mischel, ; Meichenbaum, 19 ; Watson and Tharp, 19 ). Swedenborg's theoretical system has been built upon in its applied aspects by educators and clergymen in pastoral counseling (DeCharms,l9 ; General Church Doctrinal Classes and Conferences, 1984). It will be shown that Swedenborgian applications have occurred in psychotherapy, medicine, curriculum planning and development, embryology, neuroscience, theology, and evolution theory.
THE ORGANIC BASIS OF ALL PHENOMENA
Swedenborg specifies the organic basis of death and the afterlife. In sketchy form we can say that we are born into two worlds, the spiritual and the natural, with two bodies, one for each world, and in which we exist and grow simultaneously. Prior to
death our awareness or conscious self is centered entirely in the natural body, and upon death, the natural body ceases to function and disintegrates, while the spiritual body now becomes the center and focus of our awareness. Subjectively, the person upon death experiences waking up in vaguely familiar surroundings with some initial feelings of amnesia and field dependent focus. After a few days, however, as the person walks around in the new social and external world, there is a dawning realization that one is now in the spiritual world. Swedenborg reports that most people are shocked to discover that the afterlife is so similar in outward appearance and inner feelings to this life. This impression changes, however, as the person's stay in the other world matures and evolves according to the laws of the spiritual world.
The first aspect of this part of the theory that needs to be pointed out is that it does not violate any behavioristic assumptions and standards. The other world is not ghostly or abstract or ephemeral or transpersonally oceanic and alien to what we already know as rock bottom individual personality, habit, and memories. Of course some have accused Swedenborg of insanity, though his biographers point out that during the 27 years that Swedenborg collected and wrote about data from the other world, he continued to publish scientific articles and books, and continued his job as government Assessor of Mines and parliamentary legislator with bills to his name on economic reform and other practical matters. He retained his reputation unblemished by the quick and ignorant charge of insanity or mental impairment or psychosis and etc. (see Trobridge, 19 ; Acton, 19 ; Van Dusen, 19 About the only thing we can say, besides the ineffective insanity charge is, Wow! And now the field of behavioral psychology is obligated to pick up from here and examine this remarkable claim further. This is the purpose of this article.
THE METHOD OF PSYCHOBIOLOGICAL CORRESPONDENCE
Swedenborg gives full theoretical attention to the issue of the biology of the spiritual body. We may use the term spiritual psychobiology to refer to the details he works out concerning the operation and development of the spiritual body. First, we may note that the two bodies are functional relations of each other in anatomical detail and in neurophysiological operations. In fact, the theory asserts that not a single cellular, glandular, or hormonal activity in this body is possible without the simultaneous accompaniment of the equivalent activity in the other body. It is asserted that the other body takes precedence in determining the sequence of events in this body. For instance, suppose the other body is suddenly surrounded and invaded by the close contact of a group of people in the other world. This interpersonal proximity sets up a communication flow of cognitive and affective reactions between the people and you. As a consequence, the neorphysiological states of your spiritual body is altered in specific ways corresponding to the character of the group of people that surrounded you. Streams of affections and cognitions are received by each appropriate organ of the spiritual body. Swedenborg gives a great deal of detail here (running to the tune of several volumes!) and relates these interpersonal effects in the other world to individual effects in this body, such as specific diseases and mental malfunctioning. Thus, we can say according to this system, that our physical and mental functioning in this natural body is the consequence of the psychosocial environment of the spiritual body. Bad company in the other world causes disturbances in this world. See a related article on Swedenborg's contributions to modern psychological concepts.
A behaviorist at this point would demand an explanation of how such a connection is operationally carried off. We do not accept magical forces or vacuous operations. Swedenborg supplies us with detailed rational and biological and cosmogenic details regarding the substances of which the universe is made of, and their lawful or orderly interdependence. Not a single natural or psychological fact or event can have an exception to this rule. Here is where Swedenborg's extraordinary originality and ingenuity shows up well. He presents an evolutionary view of the world being one of the first scientists after Newton to propose a theory of galactic evolution of suns and planets. According to this theory the spiritual sun came first into being through an act of Divine creation and all other created things came into being through the natural action of this spiritual sun. As the particles of spiritual substances stream out of this eternal sun, they become denser and denser through changes in their motion or vibration, and solidify into atmospheres of increasing solidity and material density. Swedenborg specified nine atmospheres, the primary being thin atmospheres which he called love and wisdom, and the succeeding ones being heat, light, ether, air, and solid matter.
This is one of the most difficult and challenging aspects of the theory since behaviorists are not used to thinking along a substantial or organic composition for human emotions, feelings, thoughts, ideas, and intentions. Today behaviorism is still plagued by the archaic view that feelings and thoughts are epiphenomena corresponding to chemical reactions in the nervous system and the body. For example, the famous JamesLange theory of emotions, and its contemporary counterpart as the Shachter view of emotions in social psychology (quoted in Watson et. al., 1984, and other texts), is that emotions are nothing else than the physiological reactions in the body and their conscious sensation. We are not used to be told that emotions and feelings and thoughts are made of their own stuff, that they are real and concrete and substantial, and that they are not merely epiphenomena arising from the natural chemicals. Swedenborg system asks to reverse the view and say that the stuff of feelings and thoughts is substantial and exists within its own sphere of organized neurophysiology. According to this theory, the original stuff that streams out of the spiritual sun is twofold: affective and cognitive. These two substances cool down and become denser, in which state they appear as heat and light of the natural sun, and eventually they appear as chemicals. Thus, chemicals are nothing but affections and cognitions cooled down, slowed down, and solidified. The physiology of emotions thus partakes of how affective and cognitive reactions in the spiritual body come down and solidify as neurochemical reactions in the natural body.
Swedenborg's cosmogony specifies that these two elementary substances of love and wisdom (affect and cognition) exist eternally in the spiritual sun and are an infinite source for the creation of ever new worlds and ever increasing numbers of humans throughout the universe.
The interpersonal basis of the other world is firmly established by Swedenborg's
psychology, sociology, and history, which together may be given the title of spiritual
geography. It is remarkable that Swedenborg's descriptions of the other world are
continuous with our familiar experience in this world, namely, ethnic varieties of people
as we know them here, identifiable according to their religious beliefs, their styles of
dress and housing, their customs and form of government, their ideals and attitudes
towards work, science, recreation, and humor. Of course, this makes the whole system more
acceptable since it offers full continuity with this world. At the same time there are
significant differences. For one thing, the language is universal, everyone speaking in
their own language subjectively, but interpersonally, it is heard as an automatic
translation into a universal thoughtlanguage by the brain of the spiritual body. Of
course, this lingua franca does not insure good communication among varieties of
cultures since these do not harmonize in their affective and cognitive habits. Swedenborg
reports that new arrivals in the other world are frequently met by dead relatives or
spouses and these live together for a while until they discover that they are
incompatible effectively and cognitively, at which point they if they are compatible, they
tend to cohabitate. One of the new peculiarities new arrivals have to adjust to is the
spatial law in the spiritual world whereby similarity of affect produces proximity of
ecology. Swedenborg reports that in the other world a storm is produced, with thunder and
lightning and wind, when people of clashing affections get together, which sometimes
occurs for special purposes, he himself having witnessed such stormy battles in the other
world. This law that interconnects affective and cognitive operations within the
individual, and external ecological events of nature, is one of the striking features of
life in the other world according to Swedenborg. He observed changes in plants, gardens,
trees, clouds, and animals surrounding families he was visiting that occurred when he also
perceived a change in the affections and attitudes of the inhabitants. This he also
observed geographically, so that certain thoughts and intentions create instant deserts or
jungles with dangerous animals that appear to attack to hapless thinker. Swedenborg
reports that the art of fantasy and hypnotherapy is practiced extensively in the other
world so that there is a constant struggle going on there between good and evil
affections, true and false cognitions. The law of the spiritual world is such that evil
forces allied to false reasoning create a downward sphere or draft through which the
people adhering to these affections and thoughts are pulled lower and lower, until they
come to reside in underground, cavernous holes, where they pursue in perennial
semidarkness ever more restricted and specialized interests in a single overriding
affection or lust, eventually turning into a kind of subhuman beast wallowing in one
repetitious and endless sensation. The laws of the other world are such that those who
adhere by preference and free will to upward moving drafts of affections, gradually find
themselves in ever more beautiful surrounds, and ever richer and deeper feelings of
contentment, fulfillment, and creative expression. The individual lives of people who make
it a daily habit to be kind, altruistic, and useful become heavenly and filled with never
ending intellectual and affective adventures in the eternal world. The happiness and
creativity of these people in their heavens exerts a strong human sphere of influence that
extends down into the minds of people living on the earths of the universe. This heavenly
sphere enters the individuals' life on earth through ideas and strivings, Similarly, a
strong and contrary sphere of influence emanates from the deep hells of human experience
and invade us upward; they are felt in our violence, greed, pride, and desire to dominate
others at all cost. And so, our past and future are interconnected through these spheres.
It will be pointed out below how these extraordinary and remarkable observations of the
other world are applicable to our concerns in therapy and education. The connection lies
in the fact that the spiritual world is within time/space/matter, hence the here
and now of our life in the natural body can be better understood and hence, better
APPLICATIONS OF SWEDENBORG'S SYSTEM
One of the first questions we want to pose with regard to this theory is how does it explain better than other theories the things we are actually interested in. Table 1 mentions some authors that have shown a distinct interest in psychology towards extended notions of monistic and materialistic biology. When we compare these attempts to Swedenborg's massive system we may be struck by their puerile attempts, their selfacknowledged ineptness in a dark area, their humiliation in front of an enormous(task dimly perceived and for which they have a total lack of tools to prosecute. They bring together speculation, bold guesses, edited myths and parables from foreign lands, and symbolism's interpreted hesitantly. In contrast to this attitude Swedenborg presents nothing but eyewitness news seen in brilliant light and sophisticated instrumentation. This is of course the difference between intellectual constructions based on reasonings and the reality and ease of a blow by blow description of a traveler or experimenter. The comparison is not fair because the outcome is disproportionate, and this outcome was made possible by Swedenborg's extraordinary intermission into both worlds for the last 27 years of his long life (16881771). Some have speculated that Swedenborg's feat is replicable and that he is only the first of a new evolutionary interconnection between our two bodies. Psychologist Van Dusen is also of the opinion that there could take place a breakdown of the normal cleavage in awareness between our two bodies (VanDusen, 19xx ) and has proceeded upon this assumption with many of his clinical patients who appear to be psychologically plagued by the presence of tyrannical people from the other world who succeed in obsessing the patients through their affections and thoughts.
Once we choose to identify with or internalize a particular affection or thought we establish a permanent association with a spiritual society in the other world that specializes in this type of affection or thought (for more discussion, see a related article on vertical community). For example, when a person staunchly believes a creed, dogma, or constitutional statement, we may say that this person loves the ideals and states contained in the statement. When this love is internalized and shows the characteristic of being persistently chosen and intensely pursued, the person comes into the chronic sphere of influence of a society in the other world from whom this sphere of interest and striving emanates. Thus we see such phenomena as the mass societies of Iran and Iraq where millions of people act together in frenzied zeal under the maniacal influence of violence and hatred against each other. This maniacal influence can be broken only when the people involved voluntarily begin to change their spiritual associations, that is, their religious beliefs and persuasions. To engineer such a change from the outside, the world community would have to find elements in their belief system which are connected to spiritual societies of a different bend of affect and cognition. There may in fact be places in the Koran and ancillary Islamic doctrines which urge the faithful to be peaceful and tolerant. As these other aspects of their own religion receive greater attention and interest, their spiritual bodies begin to be extirpated from the hateful drafts or spheres of affective influence, and begins to rise to higher places in the spiritual world where it comes under the draft or affective influence of loving and wise societies, and when this new sphere of influence begins to be chosen more and more by the people and their leaders, their bodies and minds will be filled with altruistic and peaceful intentions toward one another. Unfortunately, we have no control over which way they choose.
Swedenborgian principles of rational psychology are based on an observed reality, and hence are capable of extension and application to an indefinitely large number of situations. A Swedenborgian technology of behavior is now possible and much needed in Skinnerian circles who have been left behind by the flights of humanism and transpersonalism. Others will have to contribute to this task and it is possible to give here only a few preliminary details. Table 2 provides one example of an approach to this extension work, and Table 2 provides a more specific application to driving behavior.
BEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCES OF SWEDENBORG'S SYSTEM
From the behaviorist point of view Swedenborg's system may be labeled an organicrational psychology with an empirical operationalism for phenomenological reality. This may appear a complicated method but when looked at practically, it will be seen to be a natural continuation and extension of contemporary functionalist views in both behaviorism and cognitivism. The functionalist pragmatism of William James, grounded in physiological psychology, and surrounded as it was by James' Christian traditionalism and his inclination toward transcendentalism, comes closest to reflecting the psychology of Swedenborg's system. Since James has remained acceptable to both behaviorists and humanists (MacLeod, 1969) it will be seen that Swedenborg as well will be acceptable to both factions. The first, and most difficult, step for the behaviorist desiring this attempt is to thoroughly understand and work out in one's mind the concept of duality. Prior attempts exist in psychology but they have not been found generally acceptable; after all is said and done the behaviorist remains unmoved by the argument. In a way this testifies to the sincerity and persistence of the behaviorist not to be hoodwinked into philosophical issues from which psychology had to escape after centuries of polemics. Yet because of this very sincerity the behaviorist is compelled to examine the evidence for some new claim which appears genuine, especially if this new claim is continuous with its own felt solidity in biology and statistics. Swedenborg's definition of duality is unlike any offered before in the history of psychology. This duality is simply the actual reality of two interconnected bodies, one composed of natural substances and the other composed of spiritual substances.
Swedenborg's proposed duality for psychology is thus organic and empirical rather than spiritistic and phenomenological. It does not exclude phenomenology and humanism; on the contrary, he emphasizes the human aspects of the universe, the human goals of love and wisdom, good and truth. But he insists that all humanism of good and truth, of will and understanding, must be grounded in good old earth, in the ultimate of chemical substances and evolutionary growth through environmental reinforcement. In this rock bottom attitude Swedenborg can be easily be claimed by the behaviorist as a founding father antedating Wundt, Watson, and Skinner.
But all won't be that easy. This is because, unlike the talented Baron Swedenborg, none of us can be conscious of our two bodies! However lamentable this state of affairs may appear to be we must now decide whether, because of this, we can afford to ignore the whole thing. I for one, want to wave the flag in front of my colleagues to draw their attention to this gold mine of information about human behavior. For granted that we don't have access to the same information as Swedenborg did, may it not be the case that the information his observations have accumulated could be of great service to us if we found a way of making behavioral deductions from them?
Take for example the following observations Swedenborg made about the behavior of our spiritual bodies in the other world.