Garden, City, and Intelligence
|"As long as the mind confines itself to the sense of the letter alone one cannot possibly see that its contents are such. Take for instance these first sections of Genesis: From the sense of the letter the only subject matter people recognize is the creation of the world, and the Garden of Eden which is called Paradise, and Adam as the first man to be created. Who thinks anything different? The fact that these things contain arcana however which have never been revealed up to now will be sufficiently clear from what follows - especially clear from the fact that the subject of Genesis 1 is, in the internal sense, the NEW CREATION of man, that is, in general his REGENERATION, and in particular the Most Ancient Church. And the subject is presented in such a way that not the smallest part of any expression fails to have a representation, carry a spiritual meaning, or embody something within itself."Swedenborg: Arcana Coelestia 4|
77. After that, his intelligence is described by 'a garden in Eden, from the east', where 'the trees desirable to the sight' are perceptions of what is true, and 'trees good for food' perceptions of what is good. Love is described by 'the tree of life'', faith by 'the tree of knowledge', verses 8, 9.
Arcana Coelestia 78.
78. Wisdom is described by 'the river in the garden', from which came 'four rivers'. The first of these is good and truth; the second is the knowledge of all things constituting good and truth, that is, constituting love and faith, which belong to the internal man; the third is reason, and the fourth knowledge, which belong to the external man. All of these derive from wisdom, which in turn stems from love to the Lord and faith in Him, verses 10-14.
Arcana Coelestia 79.
79. The celestial man is a garden such as this. But because it is the Lord's, though he is free to enjoy all things in it he is not free to take possession of them as his own, verse 15.
Arcana Coelestia 98.
98. Verse 8 And Jehovah God planted a garden in Eden, from the east, and there He put the man whom He had formed.
'Garden' means intelligence, 'Eden' love, 'the east' the Lord. 'A garden in Eden, from the east' therefore means celestial man's intelligence which flows in by way of love, from the Lord.
Arcana Coelestia 99.
99. The life - that is, the order of life - as it exists with the spiritual man is such that the Lord flows in by means of faith, into his intellectual concepts, his rational concepts, and his factual knowledge. But because his external man is at war with the internal, it seems as though intelligence were not flowing in from the Lord but from himself by way of facts and rational concepts. But life - that is, the order of life - as it exists with the celestial man is such that the Lord flows in by way of love and of faith included with love into his intellectual concepts, his rational concepts, and his factual knowledge. And since there is no resistance, he perceives that this is the case. In this way order which up to now has with the spiritual man been turned upside-down is restored with the celestial. This order, which is man, is called 'the garden in Eden, from the east'. In the highest sense 'the garden planted by Jehovah God in Eden, from the east' is the Lord Himself; in the inmost sense, which is also the universal sense, it is the Lord's kingdom and heaven, where a person is placed on becoming celestial. At this point his state enables him to be with angels in heaven, and to be virtually one among them. In fact, man has been so created that while living on earth he may at the same time be in heaven. In that situation all of his thoughts, all his mental images produced by thoughts, and even his words and deeds lie open, containing what is celestial and spiritual. They lie open all the way from the Lord. Indeed everyone has the Lord' s life within him, enabling him to have perception.
Arcana Coelestia 100.
100. That 'a garden' means intelligence and 'Eden' love, is also evident in Isaiah,
Jehovah will comfort Zion, He will comfort all her waste places, and will make her wilderness like Eden and her desert like the Garden of Jehovah. Joy and gladness will be found in her, confession and the voice of song. Isa. 51:3.
Here 'wilderness', 'joy', and 'confession' are terms used by the prophet to express the celestial things of faith, that is, things that belong to love. But 'desert', 'gladness', and 'the voice of song' express the spiritual things of faith, which in turn are matters of the understanding The former relate to 'Eden', the latter to 'a garden'. For throughout this prophet dual expressions for the same thing are constantly occurring, with one expression meaning celestial things, the other spiritual. For more about what the garden in Eden means, see at verse to below.
Arcana Coelestia 105.
105. 'The tree of life'* is love and faith deriving from love; 'in the middle of the garden' means in the will of the internal man. The chief place that the Lord occupies in men and angels is the will, which in the Word is called the heart. But since nobody can do good with self as the source, the will or the heart is not man's, even though it is referred to as his. What is man's is evil desire, and this he calls his will. Since the will is the middle of the garden, where the tree of life* is, and since no will, only evil desire, belongs to man, 'the tree of life'' is therefore the mercy of the Lord, who is the source of all love and faith and consequently of all life.
* lit. of lives
Arcana Coelestia 108.
108. Whenever the most ancient people compared man to a garden they would also compare wisdom and everything connected with it to rivers. Yet they did not merely compare but actually called them such since it was characteristic of their speech to do so. At a later time the Prophets in a similar way sometimes compared them, and sometimes actually called them, by these names, as in Isaiah,
Your light will rise in the darkness, and your thick darkness will be as the daylight; and you will be like a watered garden and like a spring of waters whose waters fail not. Isa. 58:10, 11.
This refers to people who receive love and faith. Also,
Like valleys that are planted, like gardens beside a river, like aloes* Jehovah has planted, like cedars beside the waters. Num. 14:6.
This refers to people who are regenerate. In Jeremiah,
Blessed is the man who trusts in Jehovah. He will be like a tree planted beside the waters, which will send out its roots above the stream. Jer. 17:7, 8.
An instance of regenerate people not being compared to, but actually being called, a garden and a tree beside the rivers occurs in Ezekiel,
The waters caused it to grow, the depth of the waters made it grow tall, the river leading around the place of its planting, and he sent out his lines of water to all the trees of the field. It became beautiful in its greatness, in the length of its branches, for its root was towards many waters. The cedars did not overshadow it in the garden of God, the fir trees were not equal to its branches, and the plane trees were not like its boughs. No tree in the garden of God was equal to it in its beauty. I made it beautiful in the mass of its branches, and all the trees of Eden which are in the garden of God envied it. Ezek. 31:4, 7-9.
From these quotations it is clear that when the most ancient people likened man, or what is the same, the things that are in man, to a garden, they also added the waters and rivers by which it was watered, and that by 'waters and rivers' they understood the things which would cause growth.
* The word used in 1st Latin edition means tents, but in other places where Sw. quotes this text a word meaning aloes occurs. In Hebrew the spelling, though not the pronunciation, of the two words is identical.
Arcana Coelestia 122.
122. Verse 15 And Jehovah God took the man and placed him in the garden of Eden, to till it and to care for it.
'The garden of Eden' means all the qualities of the celestial man which are the subject here. 'Tilling it and caring for it' means that he is allowed to enjoy all these things but not to possess them as his own, since they are the Lord's.
Arcana Coelestia 130.
130. The person who wishes to become wise from the world has for his 'garden' sensory evidence and factual knowledge. His 'Eden' is self-love and love of the world, his 'east' is the west or himself. His 'river Euphrates' is all his factual knowledge, which is condemned; his 'second river', where Asshur is, is his insane reasoning from which come falsities; his 'third river', where Cush is, is the resulting assumptions he makes consisting of evil and falsity, which are his cognitions of faith; his 'fourth' is the wisdom that results, which in the Word is called magic. This is why Egypt, which means knowledge, after it has become magical, means this kind of person, the reason being that he wants to become wise from self, as shown throughout the Word. Such people are described in Ezekiel as follows,
Thus said the Lord Jehovah, Behold, I am against you, Pharaoh king of Egypt, the great monster lying in the midst of his rivers, who said, My river is my own, and I have made myself. And the land of Egypt will be made into a desolation and a waste. And they will know that I am Jehovah. Moreover he has said, The river is mine, and I made it. Ezek. 29:3, 9.
People like this are also called in the same prophet where again Pharaoh or the Egyptian is the subject 'the trees of Eden in hell' as follows,
I will cause him to go down into hell with those going down into the pit. Whom have you become like in glory and in greatness among the trees of Eden? You will be made to go down with the trees of Eden into the nether world, in the midst of the uncircumcised, with those pierced by the sword. This is Pharaoh and all his horde. Ezek. 31:16, 18.
Here 'trees of Eden' stands for facts and cognitions drawn from the Word which they profane in this manner by means of reasonings.
18 And Jehovah God said, It is not good that the man* should be alone. I will make for him a help suitable for him.
19 And Jehovah God formed out of the ground every beast of the field, and every bird of the air,** and He brought it to the man to see what he would call it; and whatever the man called it, the living creature,*** that was its name.
20 And the man gave names to every beast, and to the birds of the air,** and to every wild animal of the field; but for man there was not found a help suitable for him.
21 And Jehovah God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he fell asleep; and He took one of his ribs, and He closed up the flesh in its place.
22 And Jehovah God built the rib which He took from the man into a woman, and brought her to the man.
23 And the man said, By this change, it is bone from my bones and flesh from my flesh; for this she will be called Wife, because she was taken out of man (vir).
24 Therefore a man (vir) will leave his father and his mother and will cling to his wife, and they will be one flesh.
25 And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and they were not ashamed.
* Unless otherwise indicated man in these verses 18-25 represents the Latin homo.
** lit. bird of the heavens (or the skies)
*** lit. the living soul
Arcana Coelestia 8480.
8480. 'And some did leave part of it until the morning' means the abuse of God's goodness, in that they wished to obtain it of themselves. This is clear from the meaning of 'leaving it until the morning' as being anxious to acquire good of themselves, dealt with above in 8478, which is therefore the abuse of God's goodness. It is called an abuse when something of a like nature to outward appearances arises, yet springs from a contrary origin. Good arises from a contrary origin when it springs from man, not from the Lord. For the Lord is absolute Good and therefore the source of all good. Good that originates in Him has the Divine within it, and so is good right through to its inmost or prime being. But good that originates in man is not good, because in himself man is nothing but evil. Consequently good originating in him is primarily and in essence evil, though to outward appearance it may look like good These things are like flowers portrayed in a picture compared to flowers that grow in the garden. The latter flowers are beautiful through to their inmost parts, for the more they open out the more beautiful they become. But flowers portrayed in a picture are beautiful merely in outward appearance; for inwardly they are nothing other than clay and a mass of particles of earth lying in disorder within it. This is also what the Lord teaches when He says,
Solomon in all his glory was not clothed like one of the lilies of the field. Matt. 6:29.
 So it is with good that originates in man and good that originates in the Lord. Man cannot know that those kinds of good are so greatly different from each other because he judges by external appearances. But angels have a clear perception of where man's good originates and what it is therefore like. The angels with a person are present and so to speak dwelling in good originating in the Lord. They are unable to be present in good originating in man; they get as far away from it as they can, since inmostly it is evil. For good originating in the Lord has heaven within it; that good images the form of heaven, concealing in itself inmostly the Lord Himself. For in all good that comes from the Lord there is a likeness of Him and therefore a likeness of heaven. But in all good that comes from man there is a likeness of man; and since man in himself is nothing but evil it is a likeness of hell. This is how greatly different good originating in the Lord is from good originating in man.
Good originating in the Lord exists with those who love the Lord above all things and their neighbour as themselves; but good originating in man exists with those who love themselves above all things and despise their neighbour in comparison with themselves. The latter are also those who are concerned for the morrow because they trust in themselves, whereas the former are those who are unconcerned for the morrow because they trust in the Lord, a matter dealt with above in 8478. Those who trust in the Lord are constantly receiving good from Him; for whatever happens to them, whether it seems to be advantageous or not advantageous, is nevertheless good, for it serves as a means contributing to their eternal happiness. But those who trust in themselves are constantly bringing evil on themselves, for whatever happens to them, even if it seems to be advantageous and fortunate, is nevertheless bad, and consequently acts as a means contributing to their eternal unhappiness. These are the things that are meant when it says that they were to leave none of the manna till the morning, and that any they did leave bred worms and putrified.
Coronis (Whitehead) 7.
7. The order into which every man was created by God, is, that after infancy he may become a man. For when he is born, he is only an external image or form of a man, and at that time less a man than a new-born beast is a beast; but, so far as he is inwardly perfected in this form, as to his mind, or his spirit, in wisdom and love, he becomes a man. A man is like a tree, which first grows up from a seed into a shoot, and when it increases in height puts forth branches and from these stems, and clothes itself continually with leaves; and when it comes to maturity, which takes place in its middle age, puts forth flowers, and produces fruits; in each one it places seeds, which being cast into the earth, as into a womb, grow up into similar trees and thus into a garden. And if you are willing to believe it, that same garden remains with the man after death; he dwells in it, and is delighted daily with the sight of it, and with the use of its fruits. It is such a man who is described in David by these words:
He shall be like a tree planted beside the rivers of waters, which shall bring forth its fruit in its season, and its leaf shall not fall off (Ps. 1:3 and likewise Rev. 22:1-2).
 But the case is different with the man born in the church, who, when he has passed through his morning, and advanced into the first light of day, whereby he has become rational, then stops, and does not produce fruit: such a one is, or may be, like a tree luxuriant with leaves, but not bearing fruit, which is uprooted from the garden, its branches cut off, and the trunk cleft in pieces with axe, or saw, and the whole then cast little by little into the fire. The light of his rational becomes like the light of the days of winter, in which the leaves of the trees first grow yellow, then drop off, and lastly rot. His rational, also, may be compared with a tree whose leaves are consumed by worms in early spring; likewise with a crop that is choked by thorns; and also with vegetation which is laid waste by locusts. The reason is, that his rational is merely natural, because it takes its ideas solely from the world through the senses, and not from heaven through the affections and the perceptions therefrom. And since, on this account, there is nothing spiritual inwardly in his rational, if he then speaks of any spiritual thing of the church, his voice is heard by the angels no otherwise than as the voice of a parrot or a goose; for his voice is merely animal, because merely natural, and not human because not spiritual within; for it flows forth from the respiration of the body only, and not from any respiration of the spirit. Such is the man who does not, from natural, become spiritual; and no one becomes spiritual, unless, after he has become rational, he brings forth fruits, that is, imbues charity by life.
Heaven and Hell (Ager) 111.
111. There is a like correspondence with things in the vegetable kingdom. In general, a garden corresponds to the intelligence and wisdom of heaven; and for this reason heaven is called the Garden of God, and Paradise;1 and men call it the heavenly paradise. Trees, according to their species, correspond to the perceptions and knowledges of good and truth which are the source of intelligence and wisdom. For this reason the ancient people, who were acquainted with correspondences, held their sacred worship in groves;## and for the same reason trees are so often mentioned in the Word, and heaven, the church, and man are compared to them; as the vine, the olive, the cedar, and others, and the good works done by men are compared to fruits. Also the food derived from trees, and more especially from the grain harvests of the field, corresponds to affections for good and truth, because these affections feed the spiritual life, as the food of the earth does the natural life;### and bread from grain, in a general sense, because it is the food that specially sustains life, and because it stands for all food, corresponds to an affection for all good. It is on account of this correspondence that the Lord calls Himself the bread of life; and that loaves of bread had a holy use in the Israelitish Church, being placed on the table in the tabernacle and called "the bread of faces;" also the Divine worship that was performed by sacrifices and burnt offerings was called "bread." Moreover, because of this correspondence the most holy act of worship in the Christian Church is the Holy Supper, in which bread is given, and wine.#### From these few examples the nature of correspondence can be seen.
# From correspondence a garden and a paradise signify intelligence and wisdom (n. 100, 108); from experience (n. 3220).
All things that have a correspondence have in the Word the same significance (n. 2896, 2987, 2989, 2990, 2991, 3002, 3225).
## Trees signify perceptions and knowledges (n. 103, 2163, 2682, 2722, 2972, 7692).
For this reason the ancient people held Divine worship in groves under trees according to their correspondence (n. 2722, 4552).
Influx of heaven into subjects of the vegetable kingdom, as into trees and plants (n. 3648).
### From correspondence foods signify such things as nourish the spiritual life (n. 3114, 4459, 4792, 4976, 5147, 5293, 5340, 5342, 5410, 5426, 5576, 5582, 5588, 5655, 5915, 6277, 8562, 9003).
#### Bread signifies every good that nourishes the spiritual life of man (n. 2165, 2177, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4211, 4217, 4735, 4976, 9323, 9545, 10686).
Such was the signification of the loaves that were on the table in the tabernacle (n. 3478, 9545).
Sacrifices in general were called bread (n. 2165).
Bread includes all food (n. 2165).
Thus it signifies all heavenly and spiritual food (n. 276, 680, 2165, 2177, 3478, 6118, 8410).
Arcana Coelestia 305.
305. Verse 23 And Jehovah God sent him out of the garden of Eden to till the ground from which he had been taken.
'Being expelled from the garden of Eden' is being divested of all intelligence and wisdom. 'Tilling the ground from which he had been taken' is becoming bodily-minded, as he had been before regeneration took place. That 'being expelled from the garden of Eden' is being divested of all intelligence and wisdom is clear from the meaning of 'a garden' and of 'Eden', dealt with already. Indeed 'a garden' means intelligence, or an understanding of truth. And because 'Eden' means love it also means wisdom, that is, a will for good. That 'tilling the ground from which he had been taken' is becoming bodily-minded, as he had been before regeneration took place, has been shown already at verse 19, where similar words occur.
Arcana Coelestia 345.
345. 'A tiller of the ground' means someone who, devoid of charity, acts from faith separated from love, which is not faith at all. This becomes clear from the statements made further on, 'Jehovah had no respect for his gift', and 'he killed his brother', that is, he destroyed charity meant by Abel. People who look to bodily and earthly interests are said to be 'tilling the ground', as is clear from what has been stated at Chapter 3:19, 23, where it is said that 'the man was sent out of the garden of Eden to till the ground'.
Arcana Coelestia 380.
380. Verse 12 When you till the ground, it will not yield its strength a wanderer and a fugitive you will be in the land.
'Tilling the ground' means cultivating this schism or heresy. 'Not yielding its strength to you' means that it is sterile. 'Being a wanderer and a fugitive in the land' means not knowing what truth and good are.
Arcana Coelestia 3445.
3445. 'And Isaac's servants dug a well there' means the doctrine that came from there. This is clear from the meaning of 'a well' as the Word, dealt with in 2702, 3424. Now because the Word is doctrine itself and so the Word is the source of all doctrine taught by the Church, 'digging a well' therefore means doctrine drawn from there, that is to say, from the literal sense of the Word, since that sense is the subject here. But the doctrine itself drawn from the literal sense of the Word is invariably the same, that is to say, it is always concerned with charity and love - charity towards the neighbour and love to the Lord. For such doctrine and life lived according to it constitute the whole Word, as the Lord teaches in Matt. 22:37-40.
Arcana Coelestia 7343.
7343. 'And all the Egyptians dug round about the river for water to drink' means searching out truth which they could apply to falsities. This is clear from the meaning of 'digging' as searching out, dealt with below; from the meaning of 'water round about the river' as truths (the reason why 'water round about the river' is truths is that this water was outside the river and had not become blood; for the meaning of 'water' as truths, see 739, 790, 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668); and from the meaning of 'drinking' as applying to falsities. For the meaning of 'drinking' as applying, see 5709; for anyone who drinks something applies it to himself. But it should be recognized that the nature of the application when it takes place is determined by the character and state of the one who applies that thing to himself. A person with an affection for truth applies truths to himself in accordance with the state and character of this affection; but a person with an affection for falsity perverts and falsifies truths when he applies them to himself. This may be seen from the consideration that Divine Truth flows into everyone, yet is varied with each individual according to the state and character of his life. Those in hell therefore turn it into falsities, just as they turn Divine Good into evil, heavenly forms of love into devilish ones, mercy into hatred and cruelty, conjugial love into adultery. Thus they turn things into their opposites, which they do because of the opposite character and state of their life. This now explains why 'all the Egyptians dug round about the river for water [to drink]' means searching out truths which they could apply to falsities.
 The fact that among those steeped in falsities and evils truth is turned into falsity and good into evil, and also vice versa, is evident from the proverbial saying that to the pure all things are pure, and to the impure all things are impure. This may also be illustrated by natural phenomena, for instance by the light coming from the sun. The light is white, but the objects it flows into convert it into colours. It is made beautiful by objects that are beautiful, and ugly by those that are ugly. The same proverb may also be illustrated by the grafting of branches into trees. A branch grafted into the trunk bears its own fruit, and therefore the sap of the tree, as soon as it passes into the engrafted branch, Is varied. It now becomes the branch's sap, suited to the production of its leaves and fruit. The situation is similar with the things that enter a human being.
 The reason why 'digging' means searching out is that 'water', 'spring', and 'well' which are dug out mean truths, which are not dug out but searched out. This is why in the original language this same word, when it is used in connection with truths, also means to search for. In prophetical statements however either 'water' or 'spring' is used instead of truth, and 'digging' instead of searching for; for this is what prophetic language is like, as is evident in Moses, where the spring at Beer is referred to, about which Israel sang this song,
Rise up, 0 spring! Answer over it! The well* which the princes dug, which the chiefs of the people dug out, as directed by the lawgiver, with their staves. Num. 21:16-18.
Here 'spring' means teachings presenting God's truth, 'digging' means searching for it.
* lit. spring
Arcana Coelestia 402.
402. 'A city that was built' means all doctrinal or heretical teaching founded on that heresy. This is clear from the Word wherever the name of any city occurs. In the Word 'city' never means a city but something doctrinal or else something heretical. For angels are totally ignorant of what a city is or what the name of any city is. They never do nor can have any city in mind, for their ideas are of spiritual and celestial things, as shown already. Their perception is solely of what is meant spiritually by cities, and the names of them. For example, by the Holy City, which is also called the Holy Jerusalem, they understand nothing other than the Lord's kingdom in general, or as it exists with each individual who has the Lord's kingdom within him. And the city of Zion or Mount Zion they understand in a similar way, the former being the celestial degree of faith, the latter the spiritual.
 And the celestial and spiritual itself is also described by cities, palaces, houses, walls, the foundations of walls, ramparts, gates, bars, and by the temple at the centre, as in Ezek. 48, and in Rev. 21:15-end. In Rev. 21:2, 10, it is called 'the Holy Jerusalem'; in Jer. 31:38 ['the city for Jehovah']; in David, Ps. 46:4, 'the city of God, the holy place of the dwellings of the Most High'; and in Ezek. 48:35, it is called 'the city, Jehovah is there'. And in Isaiah,
The sons of the foreigner will build up your walls. They will bend down to the soles of your feet, all who disapprove of you, and they will call you the City of Jehovah, the Zion of the Holy One of Israel. Isa. 60:10, 14.
Jerusalem [will be called] the city of truth, and Mount Zion the mountain of holiness. Zech. 8:3
Here 'city of truth', which is Jerusalem, means the spiritual things of faith, and 'the holy mountain', which is Zion, the celestial things of faith. And whereas the celestial and spiritual things of faith were represented by a city, so all matters of doctrine were meant by the cities of Judah and Israel, each one, when mentioned by name, meaning some specific point of doctrine, though exactly which nobody can know except from the internal sense.
 As cities meant matters of doctrine, cities also meant heretical ideas, each one when mentioned by name meaning some specific heretical idea. But at this point solely the consideration that in general a city means doctrinal teaching or else heretical may be established from the following places:
 In Isaiah,
On that day there will be five cities in the land of Egypt which speak in the lip of Canaan and swear to Jehovah Zebaoth. One of these will be called the city Heres. Isa. 19:18.
This refers to man's knowledge of spiritual and celestial things at the time of the Lord's Coming. In the same prophet,
Full of tumults, a tumultuous city, an exultant city. Isa. 22:1, 2.
This refers to 'the valley of vision', which is delusion. In Jeremiah,
The cities of the south are shut up, with none opening them. Jer. 13:10.
This refers to people who are in 'the south', that is, who dwell in the light of truth, but blot it out. In the same prophet,
Jehovah thought to destroy the wall of the daughter of Zion. He causes rampart and wall to mourn; they have languished together. Her gates have sunk into the ground, He has destroyed and broken in pieces her bars. Lam. 2:8, 9.
Here anyone may see that nothing else is meant by 'wall, rampart, gates and bars' than matters of doctrine.
 Similarly in Isaiah,
This song will be sung in the land of Judah, Ours is a strong city, salvation will establish walls and a rampart. Open the gates that the righteous nation that keeps faith may enter in. Isa. 26:1, 2.
In the same prophet,
I will exalt You, I will confess Your name. You have made the city into a heap, the fortified city into a ruin; let not a palace of aliens be built of the city for ever. Therefore a strong people will honour You, the city of terrifying nations will fear You. Isa. 25:1-3.
Nor does this refer to any actual city. In Balaam's prophecy,
Edom will be an inheritance, and out of Jacob one will have dominion, and he will accomplish the destruction of the remnant of the city. Num. 24:18, 19.
Here anyone may see that 'the city' does not mean an actual city. In Isaiah,
The city of hollowness has been broken down, every house has been shut up so that none may enter in. There is an outcry in the streets over the wine. Isa. 24:10, 11.
Here 'city of hollowness' stands for hollowness of doctrine. In this and other places 'streets' means the things that constitute a city, namely falsities or truths. In John,
When the seventh angel poured out his bowl the great city was split into three parts and the cities of the nations fell. Rev. 16:17, 19.
That 'a great city' means something heretical, as do 'the cities of the nations', may be clear to anyone. The explanation is also given in Rev. 17:18 that the great city means the woman whom John saw, 'the woman', as shown already, being a Church of that nature.
Arcana Coelestia 2344.
2344. Verse 4 Scarcely had they lain down when the men of the city, the men of Sodom, surrounded the house, from boy even to old man, all the people from furthest away.
'Scarcely had they lain clown' means the first phase of visitation. 'The men of the city' means those immersed in falsities. 'The men of Sodom' means those immersed in evils. 'Surrounded the house' means that they were set against the good that flows from charity. 'From boy even to old man' means falsities and evils, both recent and confirmed. 'All the people from furthest away' means every single one of them.
Arcana Coelestia (Potts) 2336.
2336. That a "street" signifies truth, may be seen from many passages in the Word, as in John, where the New Jerusalem is treated of:
The twelve gates were twelve pearls, every gate was one pearl; and the street of the city was pure gold, as it were transparent glass (Rev. 21:21).
 The "New Jerusalem" is the Lord's kingdom, which, being described as to good and truth, is described by "walls," "gates," and "streets." By the "streets" are meant all things of truth which lead to good, or all things of faith which lead to love and charity; and because truths then become of good, thus transparent from good, the street is said to be "gold, as it were transparent glass." Again:
In the midst of the street of it and of the river, on this side and on that, was the tree of life, bearing twelve fruits (Rev. 22:2),
where also the New Jerusalem or the Lord's kingdom is treated of. The "midst of the street" denotes the truth of faith, by means of which comes good, and which afterwards comes from good; the "twelve fruits" are what are called the fruits of faith; for "twelve" signifies all the things of faith (as shown above, n. 577, 2089, 2129-2130).
 In Daniel:
Know and perceive that from the going forth of the word to restore and to build Jerusalem, even unto Messiah the Leader, shall be seven weeks, and sixty and two weeks, and it shall be restored and built with street and moat (Dan. 9:25),
where the Lord's advent is treated of; "it shall be restored with street and moat," denotes that there will then be what is true and good. That Jerusalem was not then restored and built is well known; and that it is not to be restored and built anew everyone may also know provided he does not keep his ideas fixed on a worldly kingdom, but on the heavenly kingdom that is meant by "Jerusalem" in the internal sense.
 In Luke:
The master of the house said to his servant, Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in hither the poor, the maimed, the lame, and the blind (Luke 14:21).
They who remain in the sense of the letter apprehend from this nothing else than that the servant should go everywhere, and that this is signified by the "streets and lanes;" and that he should bring in everybody, and that this is signified by the "poor, maimed, lame, and blind." But each of these words contains deep secrets within it, for they are the Lord's words. That he should "go into the streets and lanes," signifies that he should seek everywhere for some genuine truth, or truth which shines from good, or through which good shines. That he should "bring in the poor, the maimed, the lame, and the blind," signifies such as were so called in the Ancient Church and were such as to the faith, but were in the life of good, who should thus be informed about the Lord's kingdom-thus the nations which were not yet instructed.
 As "streets" signified truths, it was a representative rite among the Jews to teach in the streets (as appears in Matt. 6:2, 5, and in Luke 13:26-27). In the Prophets, "streets," wherever named, signify in the internal sense either truths, or things contrary to truths, as in Isaiah:
Judgment is cast away backward, and righteousness standeth afar off; for truth hath stumbled in the street, and uprightness cannot enter (Isa. 59:14).
Thy sons have fainted, and have lain at the head of all the streets (Isa. 51:20).
Death is come up into our windows, it is entered into our palaces, to cut off the child from the street, the young men from the roads (Jer. 9:21).
 In Ezekiel:
Nebuchadnezzar shall tread down all thy streets with the hoofs of his horses (Ezek. 26:11),
speaking of Tyre, by which are signified the knowledges of truth (n. 1201); the "hoofs of the horses" denote the memory-knowledges that pervert truth. In Nahum:
The chariots rave in the streets, they run to and fro in the roads (Nah. 2:4);
the "chariots" denote the doctrine of truth, which is said to "rave in the streets," when falsity is in the place of truth. In Zechariah:
There shall yet old men and old women dwell in the streets of Jerusalem, and the streets of the city shall be full of boys and girls, playing in the streets (Zech. 8:4-5),
speaking of the affections of truth, and the consequent gladnesses and joys. (Besides other places, as Isa. 24:11; Jer. 5:1; 7:34; 49:26; Lam. 2:11, 19; 4:8, 14; Zeph. 3:6).
Arcana Coelestia (Potts) 4503.
4503. The sons of Jacob came upon those who were pierced, and plundered the city. That this signifies that all that posterity destroyed the doctrine, is evident from the signification of the "sons of Jacob," as being the posterity from Jacob (of which above); from the signification of "to plunder" as being to destroy; and from the signification of a "city," as being the doctrine of the church (see above, n. 4500). That after Simeon and Levi had slain every male in the city, and also Hamor and Shechem, they went forth, and that the sons of Jacob then came upon those who were pierced and plundered the city, is a mystery not manifest except from the internal sense.
 This mystery is that after the truth and good of the church represented by Simeon and Levi had been extinguished, and falsity and evil had taken their place, there were then superadded those falsities and evils which are signified in the opposite sense by the rest of the sons of Jacob. (That each son of Jacob represented some general principle of faith and charity was shown above, n. 2129, 3858, 3913, 3926, 3939, 4060; what was represented by Reuben, n. 3861, 3866, 3870; what by Judah, n. 3881; what by Dan, n. 3921-3923; what by Naphtali, n. 3927, 3928; what by Gad, n. 3934, 3935; what by Asher, n. 3938, 3939; what by Issachar, n. 3956, 3957; and what by Zebulun, n. 3960, 3961.) These generals of faith and charity represented by them become falsities and evils of that kind when once the truth and good of the church have been extinguished, and then these falsities and evils are superadded; for falsities and evils continually grow in the church that has once been perverted and extinguished, and it is these which are signified by the sons of Jacob coming upon those who were pierced and plundering the city, after Simeon and Levi had slain every male in the city, and Hamor and Shechem also, and had taken away Dinah, and had gone forth.
 That by "those who are pierced" are signified in the Word truths and goods extinguished is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah:
Thou art cast forth out of thy sepulchre like an abominable shoot, the raiment of the slain that are pierced with the sword, that go down to the stones of the pit, as a carcass trodden under foot (Isa. 14:19);
said of Babylon; "those pierced with the sword" denote those who have profaned the truths of the church. Again:
So that their pierced shall be cast forth, and the stink of their carcasses shall come up (Isa. 34:3);
treating of the falsities and evils that infest the church, which are meant by the "pierced."
 In Ezekiel:
The violent of the nations shall draw their sword against the beauty of thy wisdom, and they shall profane thy comeliness; they shall let thee down into the pit, and thou shall die the deaths of those who are pierced in the midst of the seas (Ezek. 28:7-8);
said of the prince of Tyre, by whom are signified the primary things of the knowledges of truth and good; "dying the deaths of those who are pierced in the midst of the seas," denotes those who hatch falsities by means of memory-knowledges, and thereby defile the truths of the church.
These also shall go down with them into hell, unto those who are pierced with the sword; when thou shalt be made to go down with the trees of Eden into the earth of lower things, thou shalt lie in the midst of the uncircumcised, with them that are pierced with the sword (Ezek. 31:17-18).
Go down and lie with the uncircumcised; they shall fall in the midst of those who are pierced with the sword; the chief of the mighty ones shall speak to him in the midst of hell (Ezek. 32:19-21);
said of Pharaoh and Egypt; "those pierced with the sword" denote those who become insane through knowledges, by which they extinguish in themselves the faith of the truth of the church.
 In David:
I am accounted among those who go down into the pit; I have become as a man that has no strength, neglected among the dead, like the pierced that lie in the grave, whom Thou hast remembered no more, and who have been cut off by Thy hand (Ps. 88:4-5);
"those who are pierced in hell," "in the pit," and "in the grave," denote those who have destroyed truths and goods in themselves by falsities and evils. It is obvious that they are not in hell merely because they had been pierced with the sword.
 In Isaiah:
A city of tumults, a city that exulteth, they are not pierced with the sword, and are not slain in war; all who have been found in thee were bound together, they fled from afar (Isa. 22:2-3);
said of fallacies from sensuous things through which the truths of the church cannot be seen, and concerning which they are therefore in negative doubt, and are said to be "pierced, but not with the sword."
 In Ezekiel:
I bring a sword upon thee, and I destroy your high places, and your altars shall be destroyed, and your statues shall be broken, and I will cause your pierced ones to lie before your idols; when the pierced ones shall fall in the midst of you, you shall know that I am Jehovah; then ye shall acknowledge, when the pierced ones shall be in the midst of their idols, round about their altar (Ezek. 6:3-4, 7, 13);
where the "pierced ones" denote those who are in falsities of doctrine.
Defile the house, and fill the courts with the pierced ones; they went forth and smote in the city (Ezek. 9:7);
a prophetic vision; "to defile the house and fill the courts with the pierced ones," denotes to profane goods and truths. Again:
Ye have multiplied your pierced ones in this city, and ye have filled the streets thereof with the pierced one; wherefore said the Lord Jehovih, Your pierced ones whom ye have put in the midst of it, they are the flesh, and that is the pot, and He shall bring you forth out of the midst of it (Ezek. 11:6-7).
 As by "the pierced" are signified those who have extinguished the truths of the church in themselves by falsities and evils, therefore also in the representative church they who touched one who was pierced were unclean, of whom we read in Moses:
Whosoever has touched upon the surface of the field one that is pierced with a sword, or the dead, or a bone of a man, or a grave, shall be unclean seven days (Num. 19:16, 18).
And therefore inquiry was made, and expiation was made by means of a calf, as again in Moses:
If one pierced be found lying in the field, and it be not known who has smitten him, then the elders of the city and the judges shall come forth, and they shall measure toward the cities which are round about him that is pierced; and it shall be, at the city which is nearest unto him that is pierced the elders of that city shall take a she-calf of an ox, by which labor hath not been done, and which hath not drawn in the yoke, and they shall bring her down unto a river or a valley, and shall behead the calf there, and wash their hands over the beheaded calf, and shall say, Our hands have not shed blood, and our eyes have not seen it; expiate Thy people Israel, O Jehovah, and give not innocent blood in the midst of Thy people; and the blood shall be expiated for them (Deut. 21:1-8).
 That these laws were given because by the "pierced" is signified the perversion, destruction, and profanation of the truth of the church by falsity and evil, is manifest from every particular in the internal sense. It is said "a pierced one lying in the field," because by a "field" is signified the church (see n. 2971, 3310, 3766). A "she-calf" by which labor has not been done signifies that innocence of the external man which is in ignorance. Unless these things were made known by the internal sense, the enjoining of such an expiatory process would excite universal surprise.
Apocalypse Explained (Whitehead) 223.
223. And the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem, which is coming down out of heaven from My God, signifies the doctrine of the new church, which is in the heavens. This is evident from the signification of "the city of My God," as being the doctrine of Divine truth (of which presently); also from the signification of "the New Jerusalem," as being the church in respect to doctrine (see the small work on The New Jerusalem, n. 6); also from the signification of "which cometh down out of heaven from My God," as being that it is out of heaven from Divine truth there. That "God" means in the Word Divine truth, see above (n. 220, 222). And as Divine truth, which is in heaven and which comes down from heaven, is from the Lord alone, the Lord calls it His God. That "the city of My God" signifies the doctrine of Divine truth seems at first view remote, for the mind cannot readily think of doctrine when "city" is mentioned, or think of the church when a "land" is mentioned; yet in the Word, "cities" [civitates aut urbes] mean nothing else in the spiritual sense; and for the reason that the idea of a city is merely natural, but the idea of doctrine in a city is spiritual. Angels, because they are spiritual, can have no other idea of a city than of the people therein in respect to doctrine, as they can have no other idea of a land than of the people therein in respect to their church or their religion. The reason of this is that the societies into which the heavens are divided are for the most part like cities [communities], all differing from one another in respect to the reception of Divine truth in good; when, therefore, a "city" is mentioned angels think of the doctrine of truth. (That the heavens are divided into societies according to the differences of the good of love and faith, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 41-50; and that their habitations are disposed into the form of cities, n. 184).
 That "cities" [civitates seu urbes] in the Word signify doctrines can be seen from many passages there, of which I will cite here only the following. In Jeremiah:
Behold I have given thee this day for a fenced city against the whole land (Jer. 1:18).
These things are said to the prophet, because "a prophet" in the Word signifies one who teaches truth, and in an abstract sense, the doctrine of truth; and as this is what "prophet" signifies, it is said to him, "I have given thee for a fenced city," which signifies the doctrine of truth defending against falsities. (That "prophet" in the Word signifies one who teaches truth, and in the abstract sense, the doctrine of truth, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2534, 7269.) In the same:
The crown of your splendor cometh down. The cities of the south are shut (Jer. 13:18-19).
Here the falsification of truth is treated of; and "the crown of their splendor cometh down" means that intelligence comes down; and "the cities of the south are shut" means that all the truths of doctrine are closed, which otherwise would be in the light. (That "crown" means intelligence and wisdom, see above, n. 126, 218; and that "south" means a state of light, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 148, 149, 151).
 In Isaiah:
Thou hast done [wonderful things, Thy] counsels from afar [are] truth, fidelity; and Thou hast made of a city a heap, of a fenced city a ruin, a palace of strangers to be no city, that it may not be built for ever; therefore a strong people shall honor Thee, a city of powerful nations shall fear Thee (Isa. 25:1-3).
The vastation of the former church, and the establishment of a new one, are here treated of; the vastation of the church in respect to doctrine is meant by "Thou hast made of a city a heap, of a fenced city a ruin, a palace of strangers to be no city;" and the establishment of a new church in respect to doctrine is meant by "a strong people shall honor Thee, a city of powerful nations shall fear Thee." In the same:
In that day shall a song be sung in the land of Judah; We have a strong city; salvation will He appoint for walls and bulwarks. Open ye the gates, that the righteous nation that keepeth faithfulness may enter in (Isa. 26:1-2).
Here "a strong city" signifies the doctrine of genuine truth, which falsities cannot destroy; "walls and bulwarks" signify truths defending; "gates" signify admission (as above, n. 208); "the righteous nation keeping faithfulness" means those who are in good and in truths therefrom.
 In the same:
How art thou fallen from heaven O Lucifer, how art thou cut down to the earth: that made the world as a wilderness, and threw down the cities thereof. Prepare slaughter for his sons, that they may not rise up and possess the land, and fill the faces of the world with cities (Isa. 14:12, 17, 21).
Here "Lucifer" means Babylon, where every truth of the doctrine of the church was either falsified or annihilated; "he made the world as a wilderness, and threw down the cities thereof," signifies that this was done to the church and its doctrines; "prepare slaughter for his sons, that they may not rise up," signifies that its falsities must be destroyed; "and may not possess the land, and fill the faces of the world with cities," signifies in order that a church and doctrine may be there. In Revelation:
And the great city was broken* into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell (Rev. 16:18-19).
Here also Babylon is treated of; the doctrine of its falsities is what is meant by "a city broken** into three parts," and the doctrine of evils therefrom by "the cities of the nations which fell."
 In David:
The redeemed of Jehovah wandered in the wilderness in loneliness of life;*** they found not a city of habitation; hungry and thirsty [their soul fainted in them]. He led them into a straight way, that they might go to a city of habitation (Ps. 107:2, 4-5, 7).
"To wander in the wilderness and in loneliness of way," is to be in want of the knowledges of truth and good; "to find not a city of habitation" means not to find the doctrine of truth according to which they may live; "the hungry and thirsty" are those who have a longing to know good and truth; "to lead them into a straight way, that they might go to a city of habitation" is to lead them into genuine truth, and into the doctrine of life. In Isaiah:
I said, Lord, how long? And He said, Until the cities shall be so devastated as to be without inhabitant, and the houses so that no man be in them, and the land be reduced to a waste (Isa. 6:11).
Here the total vastation of the church is treated of; "cities" are the truths of doctrine; "houses" the goods thereof; and "land" the church.
 In the same:
The land shall be emptied, the land shall be confounded, the land shall be profaned under its inhabitants; the empty city shall be broken, every house shall be shut, a cry over the wine in the streets, the remnant in the city is a waste, and the gate shall be beaten down even to devastation (Isa. 24:3-5, 10-12).
Here also the devastation of the church is treated of; "the land which is said to be emptied, confounded, and profaned," is the church; "city" is the truth of doctrine, "house" is its good; "wine, over which there is a cry in the streets," is the truth of doctrine falsified, over which there is contest and indignation.
 In Zephaniah:
I will cut off the nations; I will desolate their streets, and their cities shall be laid waste (Zeph. 3:6).
Here "nations" are those who are in evils; "to desolate streets" means to desolate truths, and "to lay waste cities" means to lay waste doctrines. In Jeremiah:
The lion is gone up from the thicket, to reduce thy land to a waste; thy cities shall be destroyed; I saw Carmel a wilderness, and all its cities desolate; for this shall the land mourn; the whole city fleeing at the voice of a horseman and of the bowmen; the whole city is forsaken, not a man dwelling therein (Jer. 4:7, 26-29).
The "lion from the thicket" is falsity from evil; "the land" is the church, "cities" are the truths of doctrine; "Carmel" is the spiritual church; "the voice of the horseman and the bowmen," because of which "the city will flee," is reasoning and combat from falsities.
 In the same:
The devastator shall come upon every city, and no city shall escape; and the valley shall perish, and the plain shall be destroyed (Jer. 48:8).
These words describe the total vastation of the church, until nothing of the truth of doctrine shall remain. In the same:
Behold, waters rising up out of the north, which shall become an overflowing brook, and shall overflow the land, the city, and them that dwell therein (Jer. 47:2).
Vastation also is signified by "an overflowing brook." In the same:
If ye hallow the day of the Sabbath, there shall enter in through the gates of this city kings and princes, riding in chariot and on horses, and this city shall be inhabited to eternity (Jer. 17:24-25).
"Hallowing the Sabbath" in the spiritual sense signifies holy acknowledgment of the Lord's Divine Human and of His conjunction with heaven and the church; "kings and princes entering in through the gates of the city" signify the truths of the church; "their riding in a chariot and on horses" signifies that they shall be in the truths of doctrine and in intelligence; "the city," which here is Jerusalem, is the church in respect to doctrine. Such is the spiritual sense of these words; such therefore is the sense in heaven.
 In Zechariah:
Thus said Jehovah; I will return to Zion, and will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem; whence Jerusalem shall be called a city of truth. And the streets of the city shall be full of boys and girls playing in the streets (Zech. 8:3-5).
Here "Zion" does not mean Zion, nor "Jerusalem" Jerusalem; but "Zion" means the celestial church, and "Jerusalem" that church in respect to the doctrine of truth; therefore it is called "a city of truth;" "the streets of the city" signify the truths of doctrine; "boys and girls playing in the streets" signify the affections of truth and good. (That "Zion" signifies the celestial church, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2362, 9055; that "Jerusalem" signifies the church in respect to doctrine, n. 402, 3654, 9166; and in the small work on The New Jerusalem, n. 6; that "streets" signify the truths of doctrine, n. 2336; that "boys and girls" signify the affections of truth and good, in which there is innocence, n. 3067, 3110, 3179, 5236, 6742; that "to play" means what pertains to interior festivity, which is the affection of truth and good, n. 10416.)
 Because "Zion" signifies the celestial church, and "Jerusalem" the church in respect to the doctrine of truth, Zion is called "the city of Jehovah," and Jerusalem is called "the holy city," "the city of God" and "the city of the great king." As in Isaiah:
They shall call thee, The city of Jehovah, the Zion of the Holy One of Israel (Isa. 60:14).
The prophet saw upon a high mountain the frame of a city on the south, and an angel measured the wall, the gate, the chambers, the porch of the gate; and the name of the city was Jehovah-is-there (Ezek. 40:1 seq.; 48:35).
Behold, Jehovah hath caused it to be heard, even to the end of the earth, Say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold, thy salvation cometh. And thou shalt be called a city that is sought (Isa. 62:11-12).
As we have heard so have we seen in the city of Jehovah of hosts, in the city of our God; God will establish it forever (Ps. 48:8).
(What the celestial church is, and what the spiritual church, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 20-28.) These two cities are called "holy cities," in Isaiah:
Thy holy cities are become a wilderness, Zion is become a wilderness, Jerusalem a waste (Isa. 64:10).
Jerusalem in particular is called "the holy city," in Revelation:
The nations shall tread down the holy city (Rev. 11:2).
I saw the holy city, coming down from God out of heaven (Rev. 21:2).
The devil took Jesus into the holy city (Matt. 4:5).
And in the same:
Coming forth out of the tombs, they entered into the holy city (Matt. 27:53).
 Jerusalem was called "the holy city" because it signified the church in respect to the doctrine of truth; and Divine truth proceeding from the Lord is what is called "holy" (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 6788, 8302, 9229, 9820, 10361). That city, apart from such representation and consequent signification, was not at all holy, but rather profane, is evident from the Lord's having been rejected and crucified there; and for this reason it is also called "Sodom and Egypt" (Rev. 11:8). But because it signified the church in respect to the doctrine of truth, it was called not only "the holy city," but also "the city of God," and "the city of the great king." Thus in David:
There is a river, the streams whereof have made glad the city of God, the holy place of the tabernacle of the Most High. God is in the midst of her (Ps. 46:4-5).
In the same:
Great is Jehovah in the city of our God, beautiful in situation the city of the great king (Ps. 48:1-2).
Swear not by the earth, for it is the footstool of God's feet; neither by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great king (Matt. 5:35).
Jerusalem was called "the city of God" because "God" in the Word of the Old Testament means Divine truth proceeding from the Lord (as may be seen above, n. 220, 222); and it was called "the city of the great king," because "king" also signifies, in reference to the Lord, Divine truth proceeding from Him (see above, n. 31). From this then it is that Jerusalem is called "the city of truth" (Zechariah 8:3).
 In Isaiah:
Thus saith Jehovah, thy Redeemer and Former from the womb, I make void the signs of liars; turning wise men backward, and making their knowledge foolish; saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be inhabited; and to the cities of Judah, Ye shall be built, and I will raise up the desolate places thereof (Isa. 44:24-26).
This treats of the rejection of the church whose doctrine is from self-intelligence, and of the establishment of a new church, whose doctrine is from the Lord. Doctrine from self-intelligence is meant by "I make void the signs of liars, turning wise men backward, and making their knowledge foolish," and doctrine that is from the Lord by "saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be inhabited; and to the cities of Judah, Ye shall be built."
 In Jeremiah:
Seest thou not what they do in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem? I will cause to cease from the cities of Judah, and from the streets of Jerusalem, the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, for the land shall become a waste (Jer. 7:17, 34).
Here also "the cities of Judah and the streets of Jerusalem" signify the truths of doctrine; "the voice of joy and the voice of gladness" is delight from the affection of good and truth; "the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride" are those affections themselves; and that these are to cease is meant by "the land shall become a waste;" the "land" is the church.
 In Isaiah:
I will commingle Egypt with Egypt that they may fight a man against his brother, and a man against his companion; city against city, kingdom against kingdom. In that day there shall be five cities in the land of Egypt that speak with the lip of Canaan and that swear to Jehovah of Hosts. In that day there shall be an altar to Jehovah in the midst of Egypt (Isa. 19:2, 18-19).
"Egypt" means the natural man and its knowledge [ejus scientificum]; "that they may fight a man against his brother, and a man against his companion," means against good and truth; "city against city, and kingdom against kingdom," signifies doctrine against doctrine, and church against church; "in that day" signifies the Lord's coming, and the state then of those who are natural and in true knowledges [scientificis]; "five cities in the land of Egypt that speak with the lip of Canaan" signify the truths of doctrine in abundance, which are genuine truths of the church, "five" meaning many or in abundance; "cities" truths of doctrine; "the lip of Canaan" genuine truths of the church. "An altar to Jehovah" here signifies worship from the good of love.
 In the same:
The highways have been laid waste, he that passeth through the way hath ceased; he hath rejected the cities, he regardeth not man. The land mourneth, it languisheth; Lebanon hath faded away (Isa. 33:8-9).
"The highways that have been laid waste, and the way that is not passed through," are truths leading to heaven, which are truths of the church; "to reject the cities" is to reject the truths of doctrine; "to regard not man" is to regard not truth and good. "The land that mourneth and languisheth" is the church in respect to good; "Lebanon that hath faded away" is the church in respect to truth.
 In the same:
Sing, O barren, that did not bear, for more are the sons of the desolate than the sons of the married one. Enlarge the place of thy tent; thy seed shall inherit the nations, and make the desolate cities to be inhabited (Isa. 54:1-3).
"The barren that did not bear" signifies the nations that have not as yet truths from the Word; "the sons of the desolate" are the truths that these will receive; "the sons of the married one" are the truths that are with those who are in the church; "to enlarge the place of the tent" means that their worship is from good; "seed" is truth therefrom; "the nations which the seed will inherit" are goods; and "the cities which shall be inhabited" are the doctrines therefrom.
 In Jeremiah:
I will bring upon them every good; they shall buy fields with silver, and this by writing in a book, in the cities of Judah, and in the cities of the mountain, and in the cities of the plain, and in the cities of the south (Jer. 32:42, 44; 33:13).
These things are said of those in the church who are in good and in truths therefrom; "to buy fields with silver" is to acquire for themselves the good of the church by means of truths; "to write in a book" is to implant in the life; "the cities of Judah" and "the cities of the mountain" are the truths of doctrine which those have who are of the Lord's celestial kingdom; "the cities of the plain, and the cities of the south," are the truths of doctrine which those have who are in the Lord's spiritual kingdom.
 In Matthew:
Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on a mountain cannot be hid. Neither do they light a lamp and put it under a bushel (Matt. 5:14-15).
These things were said to the disciples, by whom all truths and goods in the complex are signified; therefore it is said, "Ye are the light of the world;" for "light" signifies Divine truth and intelligence therefrom. Because that is what the words signify, "Ye are the light of the world," therefore it is said, "A city that is set on a mountain cannot be hid. Neither can a lamp be lighted and be put under a bushel;" for "a city set on a mountain" signifies the truth of doctrine from the good of love; and "a lamp" signifies in general truth from good and intelligence therefrom.
 In the same:
Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation, and every city and house divided against itself standeth not (Matt. 12:25).
"Kingdom," in the spiritual sense, signifies the church; "city" and "house" the truth and good of its doctrine, which do not stand but fall, if they do not unanimously agree.
Arcana Coelestia 5117.
5117. 'And its clusters ripened into grapes' means spiritual truth when joined to celestial good. This is clear from the meaning of 'ripening' as the advancement of rebirth or regeneration even to the point where truth is joined to good, and so the two are joined together; and from the meaning of 'clusters' as the truth of spiritual good, and 'grapes' as the good of celestial truth; in this instance both of these as they exist within the sensory awareness represented by 'the cupbearer' is meant. The joining together of them within that sensory awareness may be likened to the ripening of clusters into grapes, for in rebirth or regeneration every truth aims to become joined to good. At first truth is unreceptive of life and is not therefore fruitful. This stage is represented in the fruits of trees while they are ripening. In unripe fruit, called 'clusters' here, that state when truth is still predominant is represented, whereas in ripe fruit, called 'grapes' here, the state when good has predominance is represented. This predominance of good is also represented in the flavour and the sweetness that one finds in ripe grapes. But regarding the joining together of truth and good within the sensory awareness subject to the understanding part, nothing more can be said as these are arcana too deep for anyone to understand. First of all one needs to have a thorough knowledge of the state of the celestial-spiritual and of sensory awareness, and also of the state of the natural in which that joining together of truth and good takes place.
 'Grapes' means the good of the spiritual man, and so means charity. This may be seen from many places in the Word, as in Isaiah,
My beloved had a vineyard on a very fertile hill.* He looked for it to yield grapes, but it yielded wild grapes. Isa. 5:1, 2, 4.
'A vineyard' stands for the spiritual Church; 'he looked for it to yield grapes' for the good deeds of charity; 'but it yielded wild grapes' for the bad deeds of hatred and revenge.
 In the same prophet,
Thus said Jehovah, As the new wine is found in the cluster, and one says, Do not destroy it, for there is a blessing in it. Isa. 65:8.
'The new wine in the cluster' stands for truth obtained from good within the natural.
I will surely gather them, says Jehovah; there will be no grapes on the vine, and no figs on the fig tree. Jer. 8:13.
'No grapes on the vine' stands for the non-existence of any interior or rational good, 'no figs on the fig tree' for the non-existence of any exterior or natural good; for 'the vine' means the understanding part, as shown just above in 5113. When truth and good exist joined together there, 'the vine' means the rational, for the rational exists as a result of that joining together. As regards 'the fig' meaning the good of the natural or exterior man, see 217.
 In Hosea,
Like grapes in the wilderness I found Israel, like the first fruit on the fig tree, in its beginning, I saw your fathers. Hosea 9:10.
'Grapes in the wilderness' stands for rational good not yet made spiritual; 'the first fruit on the fig tree' in a similar way for natural good. 'Israel' stands for the ancient spiritual Church when it first began, 'fathers' here and elsewhere being not the sons of Jacob but those people among whom the Ancient Church was first established.
 In Micah,
There was no cluster to eat; my soul desired the first fruit. The holy man has perished from the earth, and there is none upright among men. Micah 7:1, 2.
'Cluster to eat' stands for the good of charity in its first beginnings, 'the first fruit' for the truth of faith at the same stage also.
 In Amos,
Behold, the days are coming, so that the ploughman catches up with the reaper, and the treader of grapes with him who sows seed. The mountains will drip new wine, and all the hills will flow down with it. And I will bring again the captivity of My people, in order that they may build the devastated cities, and may settle down and plant vineyards, and may drink their wine, and make gardens and eat their fruit. Amos 9:13, 14.
This refers to the establishment of the spiritual Church, which is described in this manner. The joining of spiritual good to its truth is foretold by the statement that the ploughman will catch up with the reaper, and the joining of spiritual truth to its good by the statement that the treader of grapes will catch up with the one who sows seed. The good deeds of love and charity resulting from that joining together are meant by the statement that the mountains will drip new wine and the hills will flow down with it. 'Bringing again the captivity of the people stands for deliverance from falsities, 'building the devastated cities' for the correction of falsified teachings regarding the truth, 'settling down and planting vineyards' for a development of what constitutes the spiritual Church, 'drinking their wine' for making the truths of that Church one's own, which truths teach about charity, and 'making gardens and eating their fruit' for making one's own the forms of good derived from these. Anyone can see that building cities, planting vineyards, drinking wine, making gardens and eating their fruit are descriptions of merely natural activities, which but for the spiritual sense would hold nothing Divine within them.
 In Moses,
He washes his clothing in wine, and his garment in the blood of grapes. Gen. 49:11.
This refers to the Lord. 'Wine' stands for spiritual good originating in Divine love, 'the blood of grapes' for celestial good originating in the same.
 In the same author,
Butter from the herd, and milk from the flock, with the fat of lambs and of rams, the breed** of Bashan, and of goats, with kidney-fat of wheat; and of the blood of the grape you drink unmixed wine. Deut. 32:14.
This refers to the Ancient Church whose good deeds of love and charity are described in this manner. Each particular product referred to means some specific kind of good. 'The blood of the grape' means spiritual-celestial good, the expression used for the Divine in heaven, coming forth from the Lord. Wine is also called 'the blood' of grapes because wine and blood mean holy truth coming forth from the Lord, though 'wine' is used in reference to the spiritual Church and 'blood' to the celestial Church. For the same reason wine has also been prescribed in the Holy Supper.
 In the same author,
From the vine of Sodom comes their vine, and from the fields of Gomorrah; its grapes are grapes of poison, they have clusters of bitterness. Deut. 32:32.
This refers to the Jewish Church. 'From the vine of Sodom comes their vine, and from the fields of Gomorrah' stands for the fact that the understanding part is occupied by falsities that are the product of hellish love. 'Its grapes are grapes of poison, they have clusters of bitterness' stands for the fact that the will part is in the same predicament; for as 'the grape' in the good sense means charity, it is therefore used in reference to the will part, though to the will present within the understanding part. The same is true in the contrary sense, for all truth belongs essentially to the understanding, and all good essentially to the will.
 In John,
The angel said, Put in your sharp sickle and gather the clusters of the earth, for its grapes have ripened. Rev. 14:18.
'Gathering the clusters of the earth' stands for destroying all existence of charity.
 In Matthew,
By their fruits you will know them. Do people gather grapes from thorns, and figs from thistles? Matt. 7:16.
And in Luke,
Every tree is known by its own fruit; for people do not collect figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble-bush. Luke 6:44.
The subject here being charity towards the neighbour, it is said that they will be recognized 'by their fruits', which are the good deeds of charity. Internal good deeds of charity are meant by 'grapes', external ones by 'figs'.
 The law was laid down in the Jewish Church,
When you enter your companion's vineyard you shall eat grapes at your pleasure until you have had enough;*** but you shall not put them into your vessel. Deut. 13:24.
This law implies that when anyone is among others whose teachings and religion are different from his own, he is free to learn about and welcome their charitable deeds, but he is not free to adopt the same charitable practices and link them into his own truths. 'A vineyard', meaning the Church, describes a place where teaching or religion exists; 'grapes' means the good deeds of charity, 'vessel' the truth that the Church possesses.
* lit. on a horn of a son of oil
** lit. the sons
*** lit. eat grapes in accordance with your soul, to your satisfaction
Apocalypse Explained (Whitehead) 374.
374. Verse 6. A measure of wheat for a denarius, and three measures of barley for a denarius, signifies that the genuine good of the church, as also the genuine truth of the church, is of no account to them. This is evident from the signification of "measure" [choenix] (which was the Greek measure for wheat and barley), as being the quality of estimation, for "measures" in the Word (as was said in the article above), signify the quality of a thing in respect to good and in respect to truth. It is evident also from the signification of "wheat," as being the good of the church in general (of which presently); also from the signification of "barley," as being the truth of that good (of which presently); and from the signification of "a denarius," the standard of estimation, as being as of no account. Because this was the smallest coin, it signifies the least worth, but here as of no account. The reason for this is that "the red horse" (mentioned above), signifies the understanding of the Word destroyed in respect to good, and "the black horse" the understanding of the Word destroyed in respect to truth (see above, n. 364, 372); and when the understanding of the Word in respect to good and in respect to truth has been destroyed, then the genuine good and the genuine truth of the church are estimated as of no account. The "denarius" is here taken as the standard of estimation, because some piece of money must be taken that some price may be expressed in the sense of the letter, since it is said that "a balance was in the hand of him that sat upon the horse," and that "the wheat and the barley were measured;" consequently the smallest coin of all was taken as the standard of the estimation of the price; and as there was no longer any understanding of the Word in respect to good and in respect to truth, a "denarius" in the spiritual sense here signifies as of no account.
 It is said, "a measure of wheat and three measures of barley," because "one" is predicated of good, and "three" of truths; and "one," when predicated of good, signifies what is perfect, thus also what is genuine; and "three," when predicated of truths, signifies what is full, thus also what is genuine; consequently "a measure of wheat and three measures of barley" signify the genuine good and the genuine truth of the church. "Wheat" signifies good, and "barley" its truth, because all things belonging to the field signify the things that belong to the church; and things belonging to the field, as crops of various kinds, serve for food; and things for food and for the nourishment of the body signify in the spiritual sense such things as nourish the soul or mind, all of which have relation to the good of love and the truth of faith; thus especially wheat and barley, because bread is made from them. (That foods of every kind signify spiritual food, thus the things of knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom, consequently the good and truth from which these are, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3114, 4459, 5147, 5293, 5340, 5342, 5410, 5426, 5576, 5582, 5588, 5655, 5915, 8408, 8562, 9003. Of "bread" in general, see the work on The New Jerusalem, n. 218; that "field" signifies the church, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2971, 3766, 9139.)
That "wheat" and "barley" have such a signification is from correspondence, as is evident from the things that appear in the spiritual world, where all appearances are correspondences. There plains, fields, crops of various kinds, and also bread appear; from this is the knowledge that they are correspondences, and consequently that they have significations according to correspondences.
 That "wheat" and "barley" signify the good and truth of the church, "wheat" its good, and "barley" its truth, can be seen also from the passages in the Word where they are mentioned, as from the following. In Jeremiah:
Jehovah, who hath dispersed Israel, will bring him together and will keep him as a shepherd doth his drove; for Jehovah hath ransomed Jacob, and hath redeemed him out of the hand of him that was stronger than he. Therefore shall they come and sing aloud in the height of Zion, and shall flow together unto the good of Jehovah, to the wheat, to the new wine, and to the oil, and to the sons of the flock, and of the herd; and their soul shall become as a watered garden (Jer. 31:10-12).
This treats of the establishment of a new church; "Israel" and "Jacob" signify that church, "Israel" the internal spiritual church, and "Jacob" the external; for every church is internal and external. Its establishment is described by "Jehovah will bring him together and will keep him as a shepherd doth his drove, for He hath ransomed Jacob, and hath redeemed him out of the hand of him that was stronger than he;" "to redeem" signifies to reform (see above, n. 328); "out of the hand of him that was stronger than he" signifies out of evil and falsity, which before had possession; the internal joy or joy of heart arising from celestial good and truths therefrom that such have, is signified by "therefore shall they come and sing aloud in the height of Zion, and shall flow together unto the good of Jehovah, to the wheat, to the new wine, and to the oil, and to the sons of the flock and of the herd," "to sing in the height of Zion" signifying internal celestial joy, or such as is in the Lord's celestial kingdom, "to sing aloud" meaning that joy (see above, n. 326), "height" what is internal, and "Zion" the celestial kingdom; "wheat" signifies the good of the natural man, "new wine" its truth; "oil" the good of the spiritual man, "the sons of the flock" spiritual truths, and "the sons of the herd" natural truths; because these are what are signified they are called "the good of Jehovah." That such have intelligence and wisdom from this source is signified by "their soul shall become as a watered garden," for "garden" in the Word signifies intelligence, and "watered" continual growth. "Wheat," "new wine," "oil," "the sons of a flock and of the herd," are plainly not here meant, for it is said, "Jehovah hath ransomed Jacob, and their soul shall become as a watered garden."
 In Joel:
The field was devastated, the ground mourned; for the corn was devastated, the new wine was dried up, the oil languished. The husbandmen were ashamed, the vine-dressers howled for the wheat and for the barley, because the harvest of the field hath perished (Joel 1:10, 11).
This is not said of a field and its barrenness, but of the church and its vastation; therefore "field," "ground," "corn," "new wine," and "oil" do not mean these things themselves, but "field" and "ground" mean the church, "field" the church in relation to the reception and bringing forth of truth and good, and "ground" the church in respect to the nation that is in it; "corn" means good of every kind in the external man; "new wine" the truth also therein; "oil" the good in the internal man; "the husbandmen that were ashamed," and "the vine-dressers that howled for the wheat and for the barley" signify those who are of the church, "wheat" and "barley" signifying the good and truth of the church; and "the harvest of the field that thus perished" signifying all worship from good and truth.
 In Jeremiah:
Upon all the heights in the wilderness the devastators have come; because the sword of Jehovah devoureth from the end of the land even to the end of the land; no flesh hath peace. They have sown wheat and have reaped thorns (Jer. 12:12-13).
This, too is said of the church and its vastation; "the heights in the wilderness upon which the devastators have come" signify that every good of charity has perished through evils and falsities, "heights" in the Word signifying where there is the good of charity, and in an abstract sense that good itself, "wilderness" signifies where there is no good because no truth, and "devastators" signify the evils and falsities through which good and truth perish; "the sword of Jehovah devoureth from the end of the land even to the end of the land" signifies falsity destroying all things of the church, "the sword devouring" meaning falsity destroying, and "from the end of the land even to the end of the land" signifying all things of the church; "no flesh hath peace" signifies that there is no longer internal rest, because of the dominion of evil and falsity; "they have sown wheat and have reaped thorns" signifies that instead of the goods of truth there are the evils of falsity, "wheat" meaning the goods of truth, and "thorns" the evils of falsity.
 In the same:
Ishmael, who was of the seed of the kingdom, slew Gedaliah, whom the king of Babylon had appointed over the land, and all the Jews who were with him, and the Chaldeans, also the men from Shechem, from Shiloh, and from Samaria; but ten men were found among them who said unto Ishmael, Put us not to death, for we have things hid in the field, wheat and barley, and oil and honey. So he forbare, and put them not to death (Jer. 41:1-8).
These historical statements describe, in the internal sense, the damnation of those who profane holy things; for "Gedaliah, whom the king of Babylon appointed over the land," and "the Jews who were with him," and "the Chaldeans," and "the men from Shechem, from Shiloh, and from Samaria," mean those who profane, and in the abstract sense, profanations of every kind, "the king of Babylon" signifying the profanation of good and truth. Their damnation is signified by their being put to death, for "to be put to death" signifies to be slain spiritually (see n. 315); but "the ten men who said to Ishmael, put us not to death for we have things hid in the field, wheat and barley, and oil and honey," mean those who have not profaned the holy things of the church, because inwardly they have good and truth; for those who profane have nothing of good and truth inwardly, but only outwardly when they speak and preach, while those who do not profane have good and truth inwardly; this is meant by their saying that "they have things hid in the field, wheat, barley, oil, and honey," "wheat and barley" signifying the goods and truths of the external man, "oil" the good of the internal man, and "honey" the delight thereof; "ten men" signify all who are such, "ten" signifying all persons and all things; that "he forbare and put them not to death" signifies that they were not profane, thus not damned; "Ishmael" represents those who are in the genuine truths of the church, which is also signified by "the seed of the kingdom," of which he was. Such are the things involved in this history, the histories in the Word equally with the prophecies having an internal sense.
 In Moses:
Jehovah thy God bringeth thee into a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths going forth in valley and mountain; a land of wheat and barley, and of vine, and fig-tree, and pomegranate; a land of oil olive and honey (Deut. 8:7-8).
In the sense of the letter this is a description of the land of Canaan, but in the spiritual sense the Lord's church is described, since this is meant in that sense by "the land of Canaan;" and all kinds of good and truth pertaining to the church are enumerated. The land is called "a land of brooks of water," because "brooks of water" signify the doctrinals of truth; "fountains and depths going forth in valley and mountain" signify interior and exterior truths from the Word, "fountains," interior truths therefrom, and "depths" exterior truths. The latter are said to go forth "out of the valley," because "a valley" signifies what is lower and exterior, where such truths are; and the former are said "to go forth out of the mountain," because a "mountain" signifies what is higher and interior, where truths of that kind are; "a land of wheat and barley, and of vine and fig-tree, and pomegranate," signifies the church in respect to good and truth of every kind, "wheat and barley" signifying good and truth from a celestial origin, "vine and fig-tree" good and truth from a spiritual origin, and "pomegranate" knowledges of good and truth; and "a land of oil olive and honey" signifies the church in respect to the good of love and its enjoyment. One who does not know the spiritual sense of the Word believes no otherwise than that this merely describes the land of Canaan; but in that case the Word would be merely natural, and not spiritual, and yet the Word everywhere is in its bosom spiritual, and it is spiritual when by these words are understood the spiritual things they signify, namely, goods and truths of every kind. (But what "brooks," "fountains," "depths," "valley," "mountain," "vine," "fig-tree," "pomegranate," "olive," "oil" and "honey" signify is shown in Arcana Coelestia, all of which would be too extended to cite here; but many of these things have been shown and will be shown in this explanation of Revelation, and these may be consulted in their places.)
 In Job:
If I have eaten the strength (of the earth) without silver, and have made the soul of its [masters] to expire, let the thorn come forth instead of wheat, and the wild vine instead of barley (Job 31:39-40).
"To eat the strength of the earth without silver" signifies to appropriate to oneself the good of the church without the truth, "earth" meaning the church, and "silver" truth; and "to make the soul of its [masters] to expire" signifies thus to empty out the spiritual life; "let the thorn come forth instead of wheat, and the wild vine instead of barley" signifies that evil will be held for good, and falsity for truth, "wheat" meaning good, "thorn" evil, "barley" truth, and "wild vine" falsity; for good can be acquired only by means of truths.
 In Isaiah:
I have heard a consummation and decision from the Lord Jehovih of Hosts upon the whole earth. Will the ploughman plough all day for sowing? will he open and harrow his ground? when he hath made plain the faces thereof doth he not scatter the fennel? and doth he not put in the measured wheat and the appointed barley and the appointed spelt? Thus doth he chasten him for judgment, his God doth instruct him (Isa. 28:22, 24-26).
This in the spiritual sense describes the total destruction of the church with the Jewish and Israelitish nation, and teaches that it is of no avail to learn and know the Word except for the purpose of applying its good and truth to the use of life; from this source and no other is intelligence from the Lord. That the church with that nation was wholly destroyed is meant by "I have heard a consummation and decision from the Lord Jehovih of Hosts upon the whole earth," "consummation and decision" meaning the complete destruction, and "the whole earth," the whole church, that is, every thing of it; that it is of no avail to learn and know the Word is signified by "will the ploughman plough all day for sowing? Will he open and harrow his ground?" "to plough for sowing" meaning to learn, and "to harrow the ground" meaning to deposit in the memory. That the good and truth of the Word should be applied to the use of life is signified by "when he hath made plain the faces thereof, doth he not scatter the fennel, and put in the measured wheat and the appointed barley and the appointed spelt?" "When he hath made plain the faces of the ground he scattereth the fennel" signifies when there is preparation by the Word; "the measured wheat and the appointed barley and the appointed spelt" signify the application of good and truth to the use of life, "wheat" meaning good, "barley" truth, and "spelt" knowledges; and that from this source and no other is intelligence from the Lord is signified by "thus doth he chasten for judgment, his God doth instruct him," "judgment" signifying intelligence, and "his God doth instruct him" signifying that it is from the Lord.
 In Moses:
Jehovah made him ride upon the high places of the earth, and fed him with the increase of the fields; He made him to suck honey out of the cliff, and oil out of the flint of the rock; butter of the herd and milk of the flock, with the fat of lambs, and of rams, the sons of Bashan, and of he-goats, with the fat of the kidneys of wheat; and thou drinkest the blood of grapes, unmixed wine (Deut. 32:13-14).
This is said of the Ancient Church established by the Lord after the flood, which was in intelligence and wisdom, because it was in the good of charity and in the faith therefrom. This intelligence and wisdom from the Lord is signified by "Jehovah made him to ride upon the high places of the earth, and fed him with the increase of the fields;" the celestial and spiritual goods that they received through truths are described by "He made him to suck honey out of the cliff, and oil out of the flint of the rock; butter of the herd and milk of the flock, with the fat of lambs, and of rams, the sons of Bashan, and of he-goats, with the fat of the kidneys of wheat; and thou drinkest the blood of grapes, unmixed wine," "wheat" signifying here in a general sense all good, and "blood of grapes" and "unmixed wine" all truth therefrom.
 In David:
O that My people would hearken unto Me, and Israel would walk in My ways! I would feed* them with the fat of wheat; and with honey out of the rock I would satisfy them (Ps. 81:13, 16).
"Fat of wheat," and "honey out of the rock with which they would be fed and satisfied" signify good of every kind from celestial good and enjoyment thereof from the Lord; for "fat" signifies celestial good, "wheat" good of every kind, "honey" the enjoyment of good, and "rock" the Lord. That those who live according to the Lord's commandments will possess these things is meant by "O that My people would hearken unto me, and Israel would walk in My ways!" "Ways" in the Word signifying truths and also commandments, and "to walk" signifying to live.
 In the same:
Celebrate Jehovah, O Jerusalem; praise thy God, O Zion. For He strengtheneth the bars of thy gates, He blesseth thy sons in the midst of thee. He maketh thy border peace, and satisfieth thee with the fat of wheat (Ps. 147:12-14).
"Jerusalem" and "Zion" mean the church; "Jerusalem" the church in respect to the truths of doctrine, and "Zion" the church in respect to the goods of love; "He maketh thy border peace" signifies all things of heaven and the church, for "border" signifies all these things; "He satisfieth thee with the fat of wheat" signifies with every good of love and with wisdom, "fat" signifying the good of love, and "wheat" all things from it, which are goods because they are from good; these things being signified, it is said, "the fat of wheat."
 In Hosea:
Jehovah said to the prophet, Go yet, love a woman beloved of her companion, and an adulteress, even as the love of Jehovah to the sons of Israel, who regard other gods, and love flagons of grapes. And I bought her to me for fifteen pieces of silver, and for a homer of barley, and a half homer of barley (Hosea 3:1-2).
This represented what the Jewish and Israelitish church was in respect to doctrine and worship, namely that by vain traditions it had falsified all things of the Word, though worshiping it as holy; "a woman beloved of her companion, and an adulteress whom the prophet should love" signifies such a church, "a woman" signifying the church, and "beloved of her companion and an adulteress" the falsification of truth and the adulteration of good; "even as the love of Jehovah to the sons of Israel, who regard other gods" signifies the falsities of doctrine and the evils of worship; these are signified by "regarding other gods;" "loving flagons of grapes" signifies the Word in the sense of the letter alone, for "wine" signifies the truths of doctrine from the Word, "grapes" its goods from which are truths, and "a flagon" signifies that which contains, thus the ultimate sense of the Word, which is the sense of the letter, and which they apply to their falsities and evils. "He bought her to him for fifteen pieces of silver" signifies for a small price, "fifteen" meaning very little; "a homer of barley" and "half a homer of barley" signifying so little of good and truths as to be scarcely any.
 In Matthew:
John said of Jesus, He shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire; whose fan is in His hand, and He will thoroughly purge His floor; and will gather the wheat into the garner; but the chaff He will burn with unquenchable fire (Matt. 3:11-12).
"To baptize with the Holy Spirit and with fire" signifies to reform the church and to regenerate the man of the church by means of Divine truth and Divine good; "to baptize" signifying to reform and to regenerate, "the Holy Spirit" Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, and "fire" the Divine good of His Divine love. "The wheat that He will gather into the garner" signifies good of every kind that is of heavenly origin, which He is to preserve to eternity, thus those who are in good; and "the chaff that He will burn with unquenchable fire" signifies falsity of every kind that is of infernal origin, which He is to destroy, thus those who are in falsity; and because "wheat," "garner," and "chaff" are mentioned, "fan" and "floor" are also mentioned, "fan" signifying separation, and "floor" signifying where separation is effected.
 In the same:
Jesus said, The kingdom of the heavens is like unto a man that sowed good seed in his field; but while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares, and went away. But when the blade sprang up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also. And the servants of the householder coming said unto him, Lord, didst thou not sow good seed in thy field? whence then hath it tares? Then he said unto them, A man, an enemy hath done this. But the servants said, wilt thou then that we going out gather them up? But he said, Nay; lest haply while ye gather up the tares, ye root up at the same time the wheat with them. Let both grow together until the harvest; and in the season of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye first the tares and bind them in bundles to burn them, but gather the wheat into my barn (Matt. 13:24-30).
What these words involve is very clear from the spiritual sense, for the particulars here are correspondences. For when the Lord was in the world, He spoke by pure correspondences, because He spoke from the Divine. Here the Last Judgment is treated of when there must be a separation of the good from the evil, and the good are to come into heaven, and the evil into hell. "The good seed in the field that the man sowed" signifies the truths of the church that are from good, "field" signifying the church where these are, and "sowing" signifying influx and reception, thus also instruction; "the man who sowed" means the Lord through the Word, in which are all the truths of the church; "while men slept his enemy came and sowed tares, and went away," signifies that with natural men the falsities of evil flow in from hell, and are received; for "to sleep" signifies to live a natural life separated from the spiritual life (see above 187), and "enemy" signifies hell, and "tares" signify the evils of falsity. What the remainder to the end signifies, can be seen from what is presented in the small work on The Last Judgment (n. 70); for it involves arcana that are there explained; here it need only be said that "wheat" signifies the good of truth, and therefore those who are in good through truths; and that "tares" signify the evil of falsity, and therefore those who are in evil through falsities. That these things are said of the Last Judgment is evident from what follows in the same chapter, where it is said:
He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man; the field is the world; the seed are the sons of the kingdom; the tares are the sons of the evil one; the enemy is the devil; the harvest is the consummation of the age (Matt. 13:37-39).
"The consummation of the age" is the last time of the church when judgment takes place. From these passages quoted from the Word it can be seen that "wheat" signifies the good of the church in general, and "barley" its truth.
TCR 767. A person who has faith in the Lord and charity towards the neighbour is a church on a small scale. The church on the large scale is composed of people like this. It is a remarkable fact that every angel, no matter how he turns his body and face, sees the Lord in front of him. For the Lord is the sun of the heaven of angels, and it is this which appears before their eyes, when they meditate on spiritual matters. It is much the same with a person in the world who has the church in him as regards his spiritual sight. But because his spiritual sight is obscured by his natural sight, and the remaining senses endorse this, being directed towards bodily and worldly matters, he remains in ignorance of this condition of his spirit. This way of looking at the Lord, however one turns, is due to the fact that every truth, from which wisdom and faith arise, and every kind of good, which leads to love and charity, come from the Lord, and they are the Lord's with him. As a result every single truth of wisdom is as it were a mirror in which the Lord is seen, and every kind of good which is part of love is an image of the Lord. That is the origin of this remarkable fact.
 An evil spirit, however, continually turns away from the Lord, and constantly looks towards his own love; and he does this however he turns his body and face. The reason is the same, but in the opposite sense; for every evil takes the form of a kind of image of his ruling love, and the falsity which comes from it presents that image as in a mirror.
 Some similar principle must be implanted in nature, as can be deduced from the way some plants spring up amid a thicket of grasses, and strive to overtop them so as to get the sunlight. Some plants turn towards the sun as it travels from east to west during the day, so that they can ripen under its influence. I have no doubt that every shoot and branch of every tree attempts and strives to do likewise; but its action is baulked by its lack of flexibility and ability to turn. Research shows plainly that every whirlpool in water and maelstrom in the ocean automatically rotates in the direction of the sun's movement.
 Why then should a person who has been created to be an image of God not do likewise, if he did not divert in other directions that effort and striving implanted in him by the Creator, by the exercise of the gift of his free will? This too can be compared with a bride who constantly keeps before the sight of her spirit some likeness of her husband, and sees him in his gifts as if in mirrors; and she longs for him to come to her, and is delighted to receive him when he comes, for this makes her heart leap for love in her bosom.
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