Quoting from Swedenborg:
Conjugial Love 326. At this point I shall add two accounts of experiences, of which this is the first.
When the problem about the soul had been debated in the high-school and solved, I saw them leaving in due order. The headmaster came first, after him the elders with in their midst the five juniors who had given answers, and then the rest. When they had emerged, they began to go apart to the sides around the building, where there were walks surrounded by shrubs. When gathered there they split up into small groups, each being a party of juniors talking about matters to do with wisdom, and in each group there was one wise man who had been in the gallery.
When I saw all this from my inn, I passed into the spirit, and in that I went out to meet them, approaching the headmaster who just before had set the problem about the soul. On seeing me he said, 'Who are you? I was surprised when I watched you on your way here and saw you at one time becoming visible to me, at another dropping out of sight; now I saw you, now you suddenly vanished. You must surely not be in the same state of life as the people in our country.'
I replied to this with a smile, 'I am no actor, or Vertumnus,* but I am by turns sometimes in light and sometimes in shade to your eyes. So here I am both a stranger and a native.'
 At this the headmaster looked at me and said, 'What you say is unusual and strange. Tell me who you are.' 'I am,' I said, 'in the world in which you once were and which you have left, what is called the natural world. I am also in the world to which you have come and where you now are, what is called the spiritual world. Consequently I am in the natural state and at the same time in the spiritual state; in the natural state when with people on earth, in the spiritual state when with you. When I am in the natural state, I am invisible to you, but when in the spiritual state visible. I have been granted by the Lord the ability to be like this. You as an enlightened man are well aware that a person who belongs to the natural world cannot see one who belongs to the spiritual world, and vice versa. Therefore when I plunge my spirit into the body, you do not see me, but when I release it from the body, you do. You also taught in the school that you are all souls, and souls can see souls, because they are human forms. You know that you could not see yourselves, that is, your souls, when they were in your bodies in the natural world. But this happens because of the difference between the spiritual and the natural.'
 When he heard me mention the difference between the spiritual and the natural, he said, 'What difference is that? Is it not like that between what is purer and what is less pure? So what is the spiritual but a purer kind of natural?'
'It is not that sort of distinction,' I replied, 'but rather the sort of distinction there is between what is prior and what is posterior, which can have no finite relationship. For the prior is in the posterior, as the cause is in its effect; and the posterior derives from the prior, as the effect derives from its cause. That is why one is not visible to the other.'
 To this the headmaster said, 'I have pondered this distinction and chewed it over, but up to now in vain. I only wish I could grasp it.' 'You will,' I said, 'not only grasp the distinction between the spiritual and the natural, but actually see it.' Then I went on, 'You are in the spiritual state when you are with your people, but in the natural state with me. For you talk with your people in the spiritual language, which is shared by every spirit and angel, but you talk with me in my native language. For every spirit or angel who talks with a man speaks his own language, French with a Frenchman, English with an Englishman, Greek with a Greek, Arabic with an Arab, and so on. So in order to be aware of the distinction between the spiritual and the natural as it applies to languages, do this: go inside to your people, say something there, and memorise the words. Then come back keeping them in mind, and pronounce them in my presence.'
He did so, and came back to me with those words on his tongue, and uttered them, and did not understand any.** They were completely strange and foreign words, not to be found in any language of the natural world. Repeating the experiment several times showed clearly that all in the spiritual world have a spiritual language, which has nothing in common with any language of the natural world. Everyone automatically comes into possession of that language after his death. At the same time he discovered that the actual sound of the spiritual language is so different from that of natural language, that even a loud spiritual sound is inaudible to a natural person, and so is a natural sound to a spiritual person.
 Later I asked the headmaster and the bystanders to go inside to their own people, and write a sentence on a piece of paper, and then to bring the paper out and read it to me. They did so, and came back with the paper in their hands, but when they went to read it, they could not understand it at all, since the script was merely composed of a few letters of the alphabet with curly lines over them, and every single letter stood for some particular meaning. Since each letter of the alphabet there conveys a meaning, it is obvious why the Lord is called 'alpha and omega.' When they went in again and again, wrote and came back, they discovered that the script entailed and comprehended countless things, which no natural script can ever express. They were told that this was because the thoughts of the spiritual man were incomprehensible and inexpressible to the natural man, and they cannot be transferred or copied into another script or another language.
 Then, since the bystanders were unwilling to grasp that spiritual thought is so far beyond natural thought that it is relatively inexpressible, I said to them, 'Carry out an experiment. Go inside to your spiritual community, think of an idea, keep it in mind, and come back and expound it in my presence.'
They went inside and thought, and, keeping the thought in mind, came out; but when they went to expound what they had thought, they were unable to do so. For they could not find any idea of natural thought capable of matching an idea of spiritual thought; neither could they find any words to express those ideas, for what is an idea in thought becomes words in speech.
 Thereupon they went back inside, came back and convinced themselves that spiritual ideas were far above natural ones, inexpressible, unutterable and incomprehensible to the natural man. Because spiritual ideas so far excelled natural ones, they said that spiritual ideas or thoughts, as compared to natural ones, were ideas of ideas and thoughts of thoughts, and could therefore express qualities of qualities and affections of affections. It followed that spiritual thoughts were the beginnings and origins of natural thoughts. They also showed that spiritual wisdom is the wisdom of wisdom, and so incapable of being perceived by any wise men in the natural world. Then they were told from the third heaven that there is a still more inward or higher wisdom, called celestial, which stands in the same relationship to spiritual wisdom as this does to natural wisdom. These forms of wisdom flow in, one after the other, depending upon which heaven is concerned, from the Lord's Divine wisdom, which is infinite.
True Christian Religion
280. The fourth experience.
I once saw a long way off some walks between avenues of trees, and young men gathered together there in large groups; each of these was a meeting where people were discussing matters relating to wisdom. This took place in the spiritual world. I approached, and on coming near saw one whom the others reverenced as their leader, because he surpassed the rest in wisdom.
On seeing me he said: 'I was surprised when I watched you on your way here and saw you at one time becoming visible to me, at another dropping out of sight; now I saw you, now you vanished. You must surely not be in the same state of life as the people in our country.'
I replied to this with a smile: 'I am no actor, or Vertumnus*, but I am by turns sometimes in light and sometimes in shade to your eyes. So here I am both a stranger and native.'
At this the wise man gazed at me and said: 'What you say is unusual and strange. Tell me who you are.'
'I am,' I said, 'in the world where you once were and which you have now left, what is called the natural world. I am also in the world where you now are, what is called the spiritual world. Consequently I am in the natural state and at the same time in the spiritual state, the natural state when with people on earth, the spiritual state when with you. When I am in the natural state, I am invisible to you; when in the spiritual state, I am visible. I have been granted by the Lord the ability to be like this. You as an enlightened man are well aware that a person who belongs to the natural world cannot see one who belongs to the spiritual world, and vice versa. Therefore when I plunge my spirit into the body, you do not see me, but when I release it from the body, you do. This is the result of the distinction between the spiritual and the natural.'
 When he heard me mention the distinction between the spiritual and the natural, he said: 'What distinction is that? Is it not like that between what is purer and less pure? So what is the spiritual but a purer kind of the natural?'
'It is not that sort of distinction,' I replied, 'The natural can never become refined enough to approach the spiritual, so that it becomes spiritual. It is the sort of distinction there is between prior and posterior, which have no finite relationship. For the prior is in the posterior, as the cause is in its effect; and the posterior derives from the prior, as the effect derives from its cause. That is why one is not visible to the Other.'
To this the wise man said: 'I have pondered this distinction, but up to now in vain. I only wish I could grasp it.' 'You will,' I said, 'not only grasp the distinction between the spiritual and the natural, you will actually see it.' Then I went on: 'You are in the spiritual state among your people here, but in the natural state with me. For you talk with your people in the spiritual language, which is shared by every spirit and angel, but you talk with me in my native language. Every spirit or angel who talks with a man speaks his own language, French with a Frenchman, Greek with a Greek, Arabic with an Arab, and so on.
 'So in order to be aware of the distinction between the spiritual and the natural as they appear linguistically, do this: go inside to your people, say something there, and memorise the words; then come back keeping them in mind, and pronounce them in my presence.'
He did so and came back to me with those words on his tongue, and uttered them; they were words completely strange and foreign, not to be found in any language of the natural world. Repeating the experiment several times showed clearly that all in the spiritual world have a spiritual language, which has nothing in common with any natural language. Everyone comes of his own accord into possession of that language after his death. I once also discovered by experience that the actual sound of the spiritual language is so different from that of a natural language, that even a loud spiritual sound is inaudible to a natural person, and so is a natural sound to a spiritual person.
 Later I asked him and the by-standers to go inside to their own people, and write a sentence on a piece of paper, and then to bring the paper out and read it to me. They did so, and came back with the paper in their hands, but when they went to read it, they could not, since the script was merely composed of some letters of the alphabet with curly lines over them, each one of which conveyed as its meaning a particular matter. Since each letter of the alphabet there conveys a meaning, it is obvious why the Lord is called 'alpha and omega'. When they again and again went in, wrote and came back, they learned that the script entailed and comprehended countless things which no natural script can ever express. They were told that this is because the thoughts of the spiritual man are incomprehensible and inexpressible to the natural man, and they cannot be transferred to another script and another language.
 Then, since the by-standers were unwilling to grasp that spiritual thought is so far beyond natural thought, that it is relatively inexpressible, I said to them: 'Carry out an experiment. Go inside to your spiritual community, think of an idea, keep it in mind, and come back and expound it in my presence.'
They went inside, thought and, keeping the thought in mind, came out; and when they went to expound what they had thought, they were unable to do so. For they could not find any idea of natural thought capable of matching an idea of purely spiritual thought, so they could not find any words to express it, for the ideas of thought become words in speech. Thereupon they went back inside, came back, and convinced themselves that spiritual ideas were far above natural ones, inexpressible, unutterable and incomprehensible to the natural man. Because the spiritual ideas excelled the natural ones so much, they said that spiritual ideas or thoughts, compared to natural ones, were ideas of ideas, and thoughts of thoughts, and could therefore express qualities of qualities and affections of affections. It followed that spiritual thoughts were the beginnings and origins of natural thoughts. This also showed that spiritual wisdom is the wisdom of wisdom, and so incapable of expression by anyone, however wise, in the natural world.
 Then they were told from the higher heaven that there is a still more inward or higher wisdom, called celestial, which stands in the same relationship to spiritual wisdom as this does to natural wisdom. These forms of wisdom flow in regularly, depending upon which heaven is concerned, from the Lord's Divine wisdom, which is infinite.
At this point the man conversing with me said: 'I see this, because I have perceived that a single natural idea is a container for many spiritual ideas; and also that a single spiritual idea is a container for many celestial ideas. This leads too to this conclusion, that what is divided becomes not more and more simple, but more and more complex, because it approaches closer and closer to the infinite, in which everything is at infinity.'
 At the conclusion of this conversation I said to the by-standers: 'You see from these three experimental proofs the nature of the distinction between the spiritual and the natural. Likewise, why the natural man is invisible to the spiritual, and the spiritual man to the natural, although either of them has a complete human form. Because of this form it seems to each as if one could see the other. But it is the interiors, which are mental, which constitute that form, and the mind of spirits and angels is composed of spiritual elements, whereas the mind of men, so long as they live in the world, is composed of natural elements.'
After this a voice was heard from the higher heaven saying to one of the by-standers, 'Come up here.' He went up, and on his return he said that the angels had not previously known the differences between the spiritual and the natural, because they had never before been given the opportunity of making the comparison with a person who was simultaneously in both worlds; and these differences can only become known by making a comparison and examining the relationship.
 Before we parted we had another conversation on this subject, and I said that these distinctions arise solely, 'because you in the spiritual world are substantial, not material, and substantial things are the starting points of material things. What is matter but a gathering together of substances? So you are at the level of beginnings and therefore singulars, we, however, are at the level of derivatives and compounds. You are at the level of particulars, we, however, at that of general ideas. Just as general ideas cannot enter into particulars, so natural things, which are material, cannot enter into spiritual things, which are substantial. It is just as a ship's rope cannot enter or be pulled though the eye of a sewing needle, or just as a nerve cannot be introduced into one of the fibres which compose it. This then is the reason why the natural man cannot think the thoughts of the spiritual man, and therefore neither can he express them. So Paul calls what he heard from the third heaven "beyond description."
 'A further point is that thinking spiritually means thinking without using time and space; thinking naturally involves time and space. For every idea of natural thought, but not of spiritual thought, has something of time and space clinging to it. This is because the spiritual world is not in space and time, as is the natural world, though it has the appearance of both of them. Thoughts and perceptions also differ in this respect. For this reason you can think of God's essence and omnipresence from eternity, that is, of God before the creation of the world, because you think about God's essence with no idea of time, and about His omnipresence with no idea of space. Thus you grasp ideas which are far beyond the natural ideas of men.'
 I went on to relate how I had once thought about God's essence and omnipresence from eternity, that is, about God before the creation of the world, and because I could not yet banish space and time from the ideas I thought about, I became worried, since the idea of nature entered my mind in place of God. But I was told: 'Banish the ideas of space and time and you will see.' Then I was granted the power to banish them, and I did see. From that time on I have been able to think about God from eternity, without thinking of nature from eternity, because God is non-temporally in all time and non-spatially in all space, but nature is temporally in all time and spatially in all space. Nature with its time and space must inevitably have a beginning, but not so God, who is not in time and space. Therefore nature is from God, not from eternity, but exists in time together with its properties of time and space.
1637. Among the marvels that occur in the next life is the fact that spirits speak to man in his own mother tongue. They speak it with the fluency and skill of one born in the same country and brought up using the same tongue. This is so whether they come from Europe, or from Asia, or from some other part of the world, including those who lived thousands of years before that tongue had come into being. Indeed when speaking to man the spirits know no other than that the language they are using is their own and that of their own country. The same is also the case with the foreign languages which a person has learned. But beyond these, spirits are not able to utter one sound of another language unless they are directly enabled to do so by the Lord. Even little children who have died before learning to talk in any language speak in the same way.
 The reason for this is that the language with which spirits are familiar is not a language composed of words but a language composed of ideas comprising thought. This language is the universal of all languages; and when spirits are present with someone on earth the ideas comprising their thought fall into words which belong to that person's vocabulary. This takes place in such a corresponding and fitting manner that the spirits know no other than that those words are their own and that they are speaking in their own language, when in fact they are speaking in the person's language. I have spoken on several occasions to spirits about these matters. All souls, the moment they enter the next life, receive this gift of being able to understand what all people in any part of the world are saying, just as if they had been born among those people, for they perceive whatever a person is thinking. In addition to this they receive other abilities which are more perfect still. This explains why after death of the body souls are able to talk to and mix with all people, no matter what region these came from or what language they spoke.
Heaven and Hell
255. That the nature of the conjunction of angels and spirits with man may be understood, I am permitted to mention some notable things by which it may be illustrated and verified. When angels and spirits turn themselves to man they do not know otherwise than that the man's language is their own and that they have no other language, for then they are there in the man's language, and not in their own, which they do not remember. But as soon as they turn themselves away from the man they are in their own angelic and spiritual language, and know nothing about the man's language. I have had a like experience when in company with angels and in a state like theirs. I then talked with them in their language and knew nothing of my own, not remembering it. But as soon as I ceased to be in their company I was in my own language.  Another notable fact is that when angels and spirits turn themselves to a man they are able to talk with him at any distance. They have talked with me from a distance as audibly as when they were near. But when they turn themselves away from a man and talk with each other the man hears nothing at all of what they are saying, even if it be close to his ear. From this it was made clear that all conjunction in the spiritual world is determined by the way they turn.  Another notable fact is that many spirits together can talk with a man, and the man with them. For they send one of their number to the man with whom they wish to speak, and the spirit sent turns himself to the man and the rest of them turn to their spirit and thus concentrate their thoughts, which the spirit utters. The spirit then does not know otherwise than that he is speaking from himself, and they do not know otherwise than that they are speaking. Thus also is the conjunction of many with one effected by turning towards him.# But of these emissary spirits, who are also called subjects, and of communication by means of them, more will be said in subsequent pages.
# The spirits sent from societies of spirits to other societies are called subjects (n. 4403, 5856).
Communications in the spiritual world are effected by such emissary spirits (n. 4403, 5856, 5983).
A spirit when he is sent forth, and serves as a subject, thinks from those by whom he is sent forth, and not from himself (n. 5985-5987).
Spiritual Experiences-Word Exp.
386. Verse 2. Here likewise, they are called "stooped" and "bowed down," and it is said that "their soul goes into captivity," or "into servitude," for they are slaves.
According to the letter here and elsewhere, the subject seems to be nothing else but their idols, or idolatry. But through the description of their idols everything is reflected which they idolize. Idols are all the things they worship and love, whether outside of people, or within them, that turn them away from the love of God. These are beyond number, for there are kinds and species of them.
Here, the works of the Law are reflected. These they worship, and consider they are saved by doing them, etc. It is the prophetical style to depict such things by many comparisons, which are symbolic portrayals. For the angels of God the Messiah understand earthly matters, and everything that confronts the senses [of the body], spiritually. Therefore, prophetical speech is a kind of heavenly Language,
but one which is not understood by any but those who are truly spiritual and heavenly, that is, who let themselves be led by God the Messiah. This Language is inexpressible as it is produced by the angels among themselves; but because men must be taught from heaven, the speech comes down into expressions like these, which are not understandable except to heavenly guardian spirits taught by God the Messiah. Otherwise, what would it mean that "Bel is bowed down, Nebo is stooped," etc. etc.? Other spirits, however, do not understand this language, savoring only what is portrayed in an earthly manner, which sometimes takes place in insane ways.
About this heavenly speech that lies concealed within prophetical discourse, I spoke today with certain spirits of earthly character, and it was compared with the angelic Language, which they hardly understood. In itself it is a language that must be learned like any other language. For by their symbolism, entirely different and, indeed, more inward and higher things are to be understood than earthly minds grasp, etc. etc.
Heaven and Hell
237. Angelic language has nothing in common with human languages except certain words that are the sounds of a specific affection. Yet this is true not of the words themselves but of their sounds; on which subject something will be said in what follows. That angelic language has nothing in common with human languages is evident from the fact that angels are unable to utter a single word of human language. This was tried but they could not do it, because they can utter nothing except what is in entire agreement with their affections; whatever is not in agreement is repugnant to their very life, for life belongs to affection, and their speech is from that. I have been told that the first language of men on our earth was in agreement with angelic language because they had it from heaven; and that the Hebrew language agrees with it in some respects.
29. Verse 8. And I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, signifies Who is the Self-existing and the Only from firsts to ultimates, from Whom all things are; thus Who is Love Itself and the Only Love, Wisdom Itself and the Only Wisdom, Life Itself and the Only Life in Himself, and thus the Creator Himself and the Only Creator, Saviour and Enlightener from Himself, and thence the All in all of heaven and the church. These and many more things besides are contained in the above words, by which the Lord is described. That they are spoken of the Lord, and, indeed, of His Human, is very evident, for it follows that John heard a voice, saying:
I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last; and He turned to see the voice that spake with him, and saw the Son of man in the midst of seven lampstands (Rev. 1:10-13).
Who, also, a little further on, says:
I am the First and the Last, I am He that liveth and was dead (Rev. 2:8).
But that all the particulars above enumerated are contained in these words cannot be confirmed briefly, for to confirm them fully would require many sheets; still they are in part confirmed in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and Wisdom, recently published in Amsterdam, which see. The Lord calls Himself " the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End," because "Alpha and Omega" refer to His Divine love, and "Beginning and End," to His Divine wisdom; for there is, in every particular of the Word, a marriage of love and wisdom, or of good and truth; on which subject, see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 80-90).
 The Lord is called "the Alpha and the Omega," because Alpha is the first letter and Omega the last in the Greek Alphabet, and therefore they signify all in the aggregate. The reason is, that every letter of the alphabet, in the spiritual world, signifies something; and a vowel, because it is serviceable for sound, something of affection or love. From this origin, spiritual and angelic speech, and, also, the Scriptures, are derived; but this is an arcanum hitherto unknown. For there is a universal language in which all angels and spirits are; and this has nothing in common with any language of men in the world. Every man comes into this language after death; for it is implanted in every man from creation, therefore they all can understand each other in the whole spiritual world. It has been granted me frequently to hear that language, and also to speak it; and I have compared it with the languages in the world, and have found that it does not, even in the smallest particular, make one with any natural language on the earth. It differs from these in its first principle, which is, that each letter of every word has a sense and signification peculiar to itself, as well in speaking as in writing. Therefore it is that the Lord is called the Alpha and the Omega, which signifies that He is the All in all of heaven and the church; and as these two letters are vowels, they have relation to love, as was said above. Concerning this language, and the writing of it, flowing from the spiritual thought of the angels, something may be seen in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and Wisdom (n. 295).
True Christian Religion
19. (i) THE ONE GOD IS NAMED JEHOVAH FROM HIS BEING, THAT IS, FROM THE FACT THAT HE ALONE IS, [WAS] AND WILL BE, AND BECAUSE HE IS THE FIRST AND THE LAST, THE BEGINNING AND THE END, ALPHA AND OMEGA.
It is well known that Jehovah means 'I am' and 'Being'. It is clear from the Book of Creation, called Genesis, that God was so called from most ancient times; for there He is called God in the first chapter, but in the second and subsequent ones Jehovah God. Later on when the descendants of Abraham, starting with Jacob, forgot the name of God owing to their long stay in Egypt, it was recalled to their memory. About this we read:
Moses said to God, What is your name? God said, I am who I am; thus
shall you say to the Children of Israel, I am has sent me to you; and you shall say, Jehovah the God of your fathers has sent me to you. This is my name for ever, and this is my memorial from generation to generation. Exod. 3:[13,] 14, 15.
Since God alone is I am or Being, that is, Jehovah, therefore there cannot be anything in the created universe which does not owe its being to Him; how this happens will be seen below. The same is meant also by these words:
I am the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End, Alpha and Omega. Isa. 44:6; Rev. 1:8, 11; 22:13.
This means that He is the one single source from beginning to end, from which everything comes.
 God is called Alpha and Omega*, the Beginning and the End, because alpha is the first and omega the last letter in the Greek alphabet, and they thus mean everything taken together. The reason is that every letter of the alphabet in the spiritual world stands for some thing. Vowels, which allow words to be pronounced, stand for something to do with affection or love. This is the origin of the speech of spirits or angels, and also of their writing-systems. But this is a mystery not previously known: there is a universal language used by all angels and spirits, which has nothing in common with any human language in the world. Everyone comes into possession of this language after death, for it is inborn in everyone from his creation. Therefore everyone throughout the spiritual world can understand everyone else. I have often been permitted to hear that language, and I have compared it with languages in the world, and found that it does not agree in the slightest detail with any natural language on earth. It differs from them in its basic principle, which is that each letter of every word stands for some thing. That can now be seen to be the reason why God is called Alpha and Omega, the one single source from beginning to end, from which everything comes. On this language and its writing-system, which is derived from the spiritual thought of angels, see CONJUGIAL LOVE (326-329), and also further in this book [280, 365.3, 386].
3482. Although the language used in the Word appears to mankind to be simple, and in some places crude, it is angelic language itself, though in its lowest form. For when angelic language, which is spiritual, falls into human expressions it cannot fall into any other type of language than this. Individual things are representative, and individual expressions carry a meaning. Since they were in direct communication with spirits and angels the ancients possessed no other kind of language. Their language was full of representatives, and a spiritual sense was present in each expression. Also, the books of the ancients were written in the same fashion, for talking and writing in that fashion was the aim of their wisdom. How far mankind has since then retreated from heaven becomes clear from this as well. At present it does not even know that the Word includes anything apart from that which is seen in the letter, not even that there is a spiritual sense in it. Whatever is said to lie beyond the literal sense is termed mystical, which solely on these grounds is rejected. This also explains why at the present day communication with heaven has been interrupted, so much so that few believe in the existence of any heaven at all. Indeed, amazing to say, far fewer of the learned and scholarly than of the simple believe in it.
Heaven and Hell
246. THE SPEECH OF ANGELS WITH MAN
Angels who talk with man do not talk in their own language, but in the man's own language and also in other languages with which he is well acquainted, but not in languages unknown to him. This is so because when angels speak with a man they turn themselves to him and conjoin themselves with him; and this conjunction of angel with man causes both to be in like thought; and as man's thought clings to his memory, and this is the source of his speech, each of them has the same language. Moreover, when an angel or a spirit comes to a man, and by turning to him is conjoined to him, he so enters into the entire memory of the man that he hardly knows otherwise than that he is aware, from himself of whatever the man knows, including his languages.  I have talked with angels about this, and have said that they probably supposed that they were addressing me in my mother tongue, because it is so perceived, when yet it was not they who spoke but I; and that this may be confirmed from the fact that angels cannot utter a single word of human language (see n. 237). Furthermore, human language is natural and they are spiritual, and spiritual beings cannot utter anything in the natural way. To this they replied that they are aware that their conjunction with the man with whom they are speaking is with his spiritual thought, but because his spiritual thought flows into his natural thought, and his natural thought clings to his memory, the language of the man and all his knowledge appear to them to be their own; and that this is so for this reason, that because it is the Lord's pleasure that there should be such a conjunction and, as it were, implantation of heaven with man, yet the state of man at this day is so different that this conjunction is no longer with angels, but with spirits who are not in heaven.  When I talked about this with spirits also they were unwilling to believe that it is the man who speaks, insisting that they spoke
in man, also that man's knowledge is their knowledge and not the man's knowledge, consequently that everything that man knows is from them. I tried to convince them by many proofs that this is not true, but in vain. Who are meant by spirits and who are meant by angels will be told in pages following when the world of spirits is to be considered.
6090. SPIRITUAL LANGUAGE OR SPEECH.
That spiritual language, or speech, has nothing at all in common with human languages, was manifest to me from the words of that language, which cannot be in the least understood by any man; and yet, nevertheless, every man comes into that language, after death, of his own accord; so that it is implanted in his spiritual man, but not in the natural. This may be evident from these two words - they say, vita vella, which signifies, Let him be afar off and depart quickly; and from the word, scapuleja, which signifies, to cast out of doors. I have not yet been taught whence the words of that language originate. They take up the words, not from the sound of affection, but from the significations of the vowels and consonants: the ideas of thought fall into such unfoldings of the lips. - Their writing differs from the speech.
2137. THAT FROM THE SPEECH OF SPIRITS ALL LANGUAGES DERIVE THEIR ORIGIN.
((((Spirits, whenever they speak, with whatever persons, speak the language of such as if it were their own [vernacula], nor do they know other than that they were born in their land, and educated in that language. It is, as it were, their own tongue [vernacula], nor do they know differently, unless reflection is given them. Thus such as had lived in Europe and other parts of the earth, and had died some thousands of years before, spoke with me in my language, with which they were as well acquainted as I myself. They were not aware that it was my vernacular, therefore belonged to another region, before they were told; yea, if it is the Lord's good pleasure, they can speak a language much more correctly and fluently than one born in that region and educated in the language. This was also a matter of my personal experience.
4778.  CONCERNING LIGHT IN THE OTHER LIFE. LETTERS PRINTED WITH TYPE WERE SEEN.
It was shown in what light appear those things which are in the other life. I once saw, in a chamber, some persons doing something, and in such a light that the noonday light of the sun would not half equal it.  It was also granted to see printed letters, which I read, and this, in such light, as our noonday would not furnish. I saw and read the least particulars of a letter, and this, in order that I might know in what light are the things which are in the other life; and also that they have written letters, and also, as it were, letters printed with type; and that, in the other life, they also know how to read. But I did not understand the language in which it was written It was said, that, since this is so, the language in which it is written, which is from the variety of sound according to affections thus a rational language is a peculiar one; and that the most ancient language, to which the Hebrew approaches, was of such a character. If this should be true!
332.  WONDERFUL THINGS [CONCERNING THE LANGUAGE OF SPIRITS].
Spirits and angels do not know otherwise than that they speak the same language they did in the world, write as they did in the world, and think as they did in the world, when yet they speak the spiritual language, in which there is no expression similar to any in the world; and they write by letters and characters; but it differs so much from writings in the world, that there is nothing whatever that is similar, except the letters and some points. Yea, they think altogether otherwise than in the world, so differently, that no thought is similar; but still they do not know otherwise than that all things are similar.
That it is so I have often experienced by this, that spirits and angels when they are with me, are in my natural state; and it was said to them that in their spiritual state they should speak words and sentences, and retain the words with me in the natural state; and then there was not a single word alike, nor did they understand one of their words. They like-wise wrote a sentence in the spiritual state, and when it had been written it was shown in the natural state; there was nothing similar but the letters and points. Likewise when they thought in the spiritual state, they could not bring forth any idea of thought in the natural state.
As for example, they say Rocky [scopulosum] and to wish life [vitam velle]. Scopulosum in the spiritual language signifies that he casts out of doors, and vitam velle, that it is afar off. When they retain these expressions in the natural state, they do not understand them, nor any expression in the natural state when they come into the spiritual state. When they write scopulosum, they write ---, and when they write vitam velle, they write ---, and they suppose that they have written it fully. They write the sense of the words by alphabetic letters, each one of which signifies a thing ---. They write also by many signs, so that the greater the angelic wisdom is, the more things of wisdom they understand in the writing; the Word is thus written.
6199. Another spirit too imagined that he was myself. He was so sure of it that he believed, when he talked to me in my native tongue, that he was using his own; for he said that that language was his. But he was shown that the language proper to spirits is entirely different and that it is the universal language of all languages. He was shown that ideas flow from that language into my own native tongue, so that spirits do not speak independently but within me, and that this serves to show that they not only enter what is man s but also suppose it to be their own.
1221. The judgment of spirits
There are spirits who constitute the urinary province. The cruder among them examine every soul they come across, eager to thrash and punish them. But their judgment is such that whatever seems disagreeable to them or that they see as reproachable, they condemn and seek to punish without considering the circumstances.
For they go no deeper than the surface, not caring what the circumstances are. Even if the soul is not to blame, but only appears to be due to the company he is in, as can sometimes happen, they persist in attributing it to him. For this reason, nothing is committed to their judgment, unless unbeknownst to them the person is inwardly to blame.
So unless the Lord governed all people, and every detail, no one of mortals would escape this kind of judgment. They are above Gehenna, extending not far from the face and on its level, toward Gehenna, but above it. This, then, can be called the judgment of Gehenna [Matt. 23:33, see 852].
Their character can be evident from a comparison of their fantasies and life with the operation of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. 1748, 8 March.
It is not easy to describe angelic language, because one has to use words that signal bodily and earthly things, consequently bodily and earthly mental images, [variously] according to each individual's state of mind.
Angelic language is such that if angels were to dictate words, and then they were written, they would understand nothing but the sense of the words apart from any earthly and bodily mental image, while spirits and earthly humans would understand the same in an earthly and bodily way, as mental images corresponding [to the angelic ones] on the inward level.
I was surprised that I could neither think nor speak with the angels except...
1221 1/2. About angelic Language
I was surprised that I could not think and speak with the angels except through spirits, beyond only being able to know to some extent that it was angelic. And from my innermost feeling, I could sometimes suppose that I was thinking angelically, yet this was not the case.
9905. 'And you shall put into the breastplate of judgement the Urim and Thummim' means the radiance of Divine Truth from the Lord in last and lowest things. This is clear from the meaning of 'the breastplate of judgement' as Divine Truth shining forth from the Lord's Divine Good, dealt with in 9857; and from the meaning of 'the Urim and Thummim' as the light and radiance from there. The reason why light and radiance are meant by 'the Urim and Thummim' is that through the stones in the breastplate varying radiations of the light of heaven were emitted, these being determined by the answers given through them. This also explains why they assumed different colours. For the Divine Truth emanating from the Lord's Divine Good manifests itself to the angels as light; it is the source of all the light of heaven. The colours from it, which are modifications of that light among the angels, are variations of intelligence and wisdom among them; for all wisdom and intelligence is a product of that Divine Truth or light. From this it may be recognized that radiations of that light in various colours are the medium through which Divine Truths coming as answers present themselves in the heavens. A similar function was served by the Urim and Thummim when God was asked something. But it should be remembered that whenever a radiance was seen in them the answer was declared at the same time by an audible voice. This declaration was made through angels, to whom what they declared had been revealed by the Lord through such a radiance; for as has been stated, this is how Divine Truths coming as answers present themselves in heaven.
 The light of heaven is Divine Truth emanating from the Lord's Divine Good, see 1053, 1521-1533, 1619-1632, 2776, 3094, 3138, 3167, 3190, 3195, 3222, 3223, 3337, 3339, 3341, 3636, 3643, 3862, 3993, 4060, 4180, 4302, 4408, 4414, 4415, 4419, 4527, 4598, 5400, 6032, 6313, 6315, 6608, 6907, 7174, 8644, 8707, 8861, 9399, 9407, 9570, 9571 (end).
Colours appear in heaven, being modifications of that light among the angels, and so variations of intelligence and wisdom among them, 3993, 4530, 4677, 4742, 4922, 9466, 9467, 9865.
 The meaning of the words 'Urim' and 'Thummim' also goes to show that all this is so; for 'Urim' means a shining fire, and 'Thummim' the radiance from it. A shining fire is the Divine Truth emanating from the Divine Good of the Lord's Divine Love, and the radiance is that Truth on last and lowest levels, thus in effects. It should be recognized however that 'Thummim' in the Hebrew language means wholeness; it is in the angelic language that it means radiance. The expression 'in the angelic language' is used because when angels talk to one another they are thinking of the very essence of some matter as perceived deep within themselves, thus they speak in terms of its essential nature. What they express flows from those insights into appropriate sounds audible to the angels alone. The appropriate sound for the radiance of Divine Truth is Thummim. This then is the source of the term. Angels have a similar understanding of the word thum, meaning that which is whole or wholeness, whenever someone reads it in the Hebrew language. This explains why in the internal sense of the Word 'that which is whole' is used to mean Divine Truth on the level of effects, which is a life led in keeping with Divine commandments, as is made clear in a large number of places in the Word, such as Joshua 24:14; Judges 9:16, 19; Psalms 25:21; 37:37; 84:11; 101:2; 119:1.  This also explains why the Urim and Thummim are called the judgement of the children of Israel, as well as the breastplate of judgement, and also the judgement of the Urim; for 'judgement' means Divine Truth in doctrine and life, see above in 9857. From all this it may now become clear that by means of the Urim and Thummim, that is, by means of the radiance produced by the light of heaven, the breastplate revealed Divine Truths in the natural sphere, thus on last and lowest levels. A like radiance also presents itself in the minds of those who are guided by truths springing from good. This radiance declares to them, so to speak provides the answers, when with heartfelt desire they seek to know what is true and love it as that which is good. That this kind of radiance is the means by which Divine Truth from heaven is revealed in the natural man of those who are enlightened by the Word is something which the world has no idea of, because the world does not know of any light from heaven that shines in the human understanding. But I have been allowed to realize and actually see that all this is so.
 In addition it should be recognized that this radiance appears on last and lowest levels because all forms of light from the Divine reach right down to the furthest ends; and since they reach down that far they also shine in them and from them. This now explains why the breastplate was placed over the ephod and above the girdle of it; for the ephod represented Divine Truth on last and lowest levels, 9824, while its girdle represented a common bond that existed to hold all things in connection, 9828, 9837. This is why verse 28 of the present chapter says, And they shall tie the breastplate from its rings to the rings of the ephod, so that it is above the girdle of the ephod and the breastplate will not come away from upon the ephod. The reason why the names of the sons of Israel were in addition engraved [on the stones] was that the twelve tribes also represented all aspects of Divine Good and Truth in the heavens, consequently heaven and all the communities there, though that representation varied according to the order in which they are mentioned in the Word, see 3858, 3862, 3926, 3939, 4060, 4603, 6335, 6337, 6397, 6640, 7836, 7891, 7973, 7996, 7997.
2631. THAT THE HEBREW LANGUAGE IS OF SUCH A NATURE THAT THERE IS NOTHING ARTIFICIAL [THEREIN], AS IN THE SPEECH OF SPIRITS.
That the Hebrew language is of such a nature as to comprehend ideas, yea, the words such that in everyone there are many ideas, so that they are general [communes] ideas rather than words of another language, may be apparent from many things, as also that in it [ibi] there have been no vowels, so that the sense of the letter was known from the interior sense, but not the interior sense from the sense of the letter, which the rather happens when the vowels are adjoined; wherefore he who perceives the sense of the letter from the interior sense better understands what is written in the Hebrew language without vowels than with them. Therefore names also [voces nominum] are not distinguished by capital initials [initalibus majoribus]; therefore also there is no distinction by means of commas, and the like as in languages in which the sense of the letter is regarded [attenditur]. Besides also the mode of speaking in the Word is natural, not artificial, as may be plainly apparent from many things; to wit, that nearly everywhere they speak as if the person himself spoke: it is not said that he thus spoke, but [it is] as if he were speaking, and so forth [ita in aliis]. - 1748, July 17.
2414. About the Hebrew Language
I have learned from angels that the Hebrew Language is of such a nature that one must pay attention to the sense of the letter, and not so much to the letter. This is confirmed by many considerations, for which reason also it was written in the beginning without points. When thus read, without points, then only the sense was heeded, and from this vocalic intonations developed, as anyone with expertise in that language would know. If one reads it in the Word without points, then unless one is following the sense, one can never know what meaning is in those words, especially in the prophets. The vowels and the like that have been attached thrust the meaning down to the letter.
Now if several read the same prophetical books without points, they would develop many senses from them, and if they had attached vowels, each according to his own meaning, then the letters would have been marked differently by each one, and wherever they could not so mark them according to their meaning, they would have sought for anomalies in the words so as to be able still to fashion the word according to their own sense. For the language is of that nature that many anomalies do occur.
So it seems to have been allowed later, in view of the prevalent state of human minds, to attach points lest the readers distort the meaning each according to their own fantasy, that is, while living in the body. So it seems that the points were afterwards allowed to be attached, lest readers corrupt the meaning in various ways, each according to their own whim. Whether the points were Divinely inspired can be found out to an extent from the prophetical writings, where the meaning is understood by no one except the Lord, and those to whom it pleases the Lord to reveal it. 1748, 27 June.
5287. 'A man with intelligence and wisdom' means with regard to inflowing truth and good. This is clear from the meaning of 'a man with intelligence' as truth, and of 'a man with wisdom' as accompanying good. It should be recognized that 'a man with intelligence and wisdom' is not used in the internal sense to mean any actual man such as this but to mean, without reference to any actual person, that which makes someone intelligent and wise - to mean truth and good therefore. In the next life, especially in the heavens, all thought and consequently all language consists of images that do not involve any actual persons, so that thought and language there are universal and, compared with other forms of them, are free of limitations. For insofar as thought and language limit themselves to specific persons, especially to their personal characteristics, and insofar as they limit themselves to names and also to words, that thought and language become less universal; for these then limit themselves to something specific and do not stray from it. Insofar however as they do not focus on such things but on realities quite apart from them, they no longer limit themselves to something specific but spread out beyond themselves, with the result that a superior and therefore more universal picture is obtained.
 One may see the truth of this quite clearly in the way a person thinks. Insofar as his thought fixes its attention on the actual words a speaker uses, its attention is not fixed on their remaining. Also, insofar as his attention is fixed on particular ideas imprinted in his memory and remains concentrated on these, he has no perception of the essential nature of things. More than this, insofar as self-regard is present in everything he thinks he cramps his thought and denies himself an overall picture of anything. This explains why, insofar as anyone loves himself more than others, he is lacking in wisdom From all this one may now see why in the internal sense matters which have no reference to actual persons are meant by those descriptions which in the sense of the letter do limit themselves to such persons. See also 5225.
Various places in the Word draw a distinction between wisdom, intelligence, and knowledge Wisdom is used to mean that which that which springs from good, intelligence to mean that which springs from truth, and knowledge to mean to both of these as they exist in a person's natural, as in Moses,
I have filled Bezalel with the spirit of God, so far as wisdom, and intelligence, and knowledge, and all workmanship are concerned. Exod. 31:2, 3; 35:30, 31.
And in the same author,
5075. After these words. That this signifies after the things which precede, is evident from the signification of "words," in the original language, as being things; here therefore "after these words" means after these things, thus after the things which precede. That "words," in the original language signify things also, is because "words," in the internal sense signify truths of doctrine; and therefore all Divine truth in general is called the "Word," and the Lord Himself, from whom comes all Divine truth, is in the supreme sense the "Word" (n. 1288). And because nothing that exists in the universe is anything, that is, is a real thing, unless it is from Divine good by Divine truth, therefore "words" in the Hebrew language mean things also. That nothing in the universe is anything, that is, a real thing, unless it is from Divine good by Divine truth, that is, by the "Word," is plain in John:
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. All things were made by Him; and without Him was not anything made that was made (John 1:1, 3).
 The interior significations of expressions for the most part originate in the interior man, which is among spirits and angels; for every man as to his spirit, or as to that very man which lives after the decease of the body, is in company with angels and spirits, although the external man is not aware of this; and because he is in company with them, he is also with them in the universal language, and thus in the origins of words. Hence there are imparted to words many significations which in the external form appear out of agreement, although in the internal form they are entirely in agreement-as here, that "words" signify things. It is the same in a host of cases, as that the understanding is called the inward "sight," light being attributed to it; that attention and obedience are called "hearing" and "hearkening;" that the perception of a thing is called "smelling;" and so forth.
2401. The spirits with a person on earth know all things in the
person, and possess them as their own
This is clear from innumerable instances, but the spirits do not know it, thinking the things are their own and that they have them from their own memory. So that I might learn this even better, I read the Hebrew language to some who had never understood a word of that language, but also first to some little children. They knew the language as well as I did: what I had learned, they knew as if they had learned it themselves, whereupon, given reflection, they ac-knowledged that it was so. 1748, 24 June.
4387. 'And Esau returned on that day on his own way, to Seir' means the state at that time of Divine Natural Good to which the goods of truth had been linked. This is clear from the meaning of 'day' as state, dealt with in 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462 - hence 'he returned on that day' means the state which it assumed at that point; from the representation of 'Esau' as Divine Natural Good, dealt with above in 4340; from the meaning of 'way' as truth, dealt with in 627, 2333, in this case the good of truth, which is truth in will and action, 4337, 4353; and from the meaning of 'Seir' as the joining of truth to good, dealt with above in 4384. These different meanings when drawn together to give one overall sense show that the words used here mean the state at that time of Divine Natural Good to which the goods of truth had been linked.
 It is not at all apparent from the historical sense of these words that such ideas are meant by them. All the same, it is just these ideas that those words hold within them in the spiritual or internal sense. For heaven, which is within man - that is, the angels who reside with him - do not have the slightest interest in details to do with the history of the world. Neither do they know who or what Esau was, who or what Seir was. Nor do they have any thought of the day when Esau returned or of the way to Seir; instead they gather ideas of the spiritual things which correspond to those historical facts, instantly deriving such a spiritual meaning from them For correspondences work in the following way: They are very much like a person talking in a foreign language to someone else who instantly understands what is meant as if in his own language, the sounds and pronunciation of the words actually used being no hindrance to him. So it is with the internal sense of the Word, which sense is in perfect agreement with the universal language which angels use, that is, with the spiritual speech which is expressive of their thought. Their speech is spiritual because their thought is a product of the light of heaven which shines from the Lord
1876. The names of men, kingdoms, or cities that occur in the Word, as with the expressions of human speech, disappear at the very threshold of their progress upwards; for those names are earthly, bodily, and material, being things of which souls entering the next life gradually divest themselves and of which those entering heaven do so altogether. Angels do not retain the least idea of any person, nor therefore of his name. What Abram is, what Isaac is, or Jacob, they do not know any longer. Instead they form an idea for themselves from the things that are represented and meant by those characters in the Word. Names and expressions are like dust or like scales that fall off when they enter heaven. From this it becomes clear that names in the Word mean nothing other than real things. On these matters I have spoken many times to angels, who have informed me fully regarding the truth. The speech that spirits employ among themselves does not consist of verbal expressions but of ideas, like those comprising human thought without words, and is therefore the universal language of all languages. But when they speak to man their speech falls into the expressions of human language, as stated in 1635, 1637, 1639.
 When discussing this matter with spirits I have been given to say that when they are conversing among themselves they are not able to utter one single word of human language, still less utter any name. Astonished by this some went away and tried to do so, but on returning they said that they had been unable to pronounce them because those words were so grossly material that they belonged below their own sphere, for such words were produced by an audible emission of air articulated by organs of the body, or else by means of an influx into the same organs by an internal route leading to the organ of hearing. From this it also became perfectly clear that no part of any expression which occurs in the Word was able to pass over to spirits. Still less could it pass over to angelic spirits, whose speech is even more universal, 1642. And least of all could it pass over to angels, 1643, with whom nothing remains of even the first ideas that spirits possess; instead angels have spiritual truths and celestial goods. Such truths and goods are varied in an indescribable manner in their least forms - which are continuous and knit together in a harmonious sequence - together with the first springs of representatives whose very great delightfulness and beauty flow from the happiness belonging to mutual love, and whose happiness flows from all their delight and beauty, because the Lord's life is inspired into them
1650. After this, they spoke still more uninterruptedly, so that the words were hardly noticeable. For it was like one panoramic mental image, although words were fashioned from it by me, but in such a way that they were not paid any notice. It was just like when a person, without any reflection upon the words, is only attending to the meaning, then the words seem not to exist. In this case, even though it was similar, still there was this difference, that it seemed to me as if the words disappeared and the speaking then went on by means of mental images alone. Yet it was more understandable than if words had been heard.
This language consisting of even more continuous mental images, being like one panoramic one, also moved the whole face, but started from the eyes, and then spread round about them. So this language was more inward than the previous one . They spoke also about this kind of language being in use with the people of their planet, that is, that they spoke thus with the better ones.
1123. About the speech of this earth-it is hardly understandable
to the spirits of the planet Jupiter
Mankind's language is understood, to be sure, by every spirit wherever born, even by those from the planet Jupiter. But because they are heavenly beings and [communicate by] thinking, they therefore have a kind of mental pictorial language that they do not even express by words, but only by more or less panoramic.
Divine Love and Wisdom
372. (1) All things of the mind have relation to the will and understanding, and all things of the body to the heart and lungs. By the mind nothing else is meant than the will and understanding, which in their complex are all things that affect man and all that he thinks, thus all things of man's affection and thought. The things that affect man are of his will, and the things that he thinks are of his understanding. That all things of man's thought are of his understanding is known, since he thinks from the understanding; but it is not so well known that all things of man's affection are of his will, this is not so well known because when man is thinking he pays no attention to the affection, but only to what he is thinking; just as when he hears a person speaking, he pays no attention to the tone of the voice but only to the language. Yet affection is related to thought as the tone of the voice is to the language; consequently the affection of the one speaking is known by the tone, and his thought by the language. Affection is of the will, because all affection is of love, and the will is the receptacle of love, as was shown above. He that is not aware that affection is of the will confounds affection with understanding, for he declares it to be one with thought, yet they are not one but act as one. That they are confounded is evident from the common expression, I think I will do this, meaning, I will to do it. But that they are two is also evident from a common expression, I wish to think about this matter; and when one thinks about it, the affection of the will is present in the thought of the understanding, like the tone in speech, as was said before. That all parts of the body have relation to the heart and lungs is known, but that there is a correspondence of the heart and lungs with the will and understanding is not known. This subject will therefore be treated in what follows.
4931. How great is the wickedness of those who come thither can scarcely be described, as it is inexpressible. It especially takes place by the abuse of correspondences and representatives - arts that are unknown in the world. In some cases, they present themselves naked, and so appear above as innocents, and, under the guise of innocence, perpetrate ill deeds. Some learn, in addition, the spiritual language, whereby they conjoin themselves with certain angels, and thus perpetrate ill deeds; but they do not have such a spiritual language as they have who are in heaven, but an artificial one; and they speak by it, not in spiritual but in natural ideas - which is altogether forbidden. Some devise for themselves another language, and so associate themselves that what they speak amongst themselves is not perceived by others; but others act differently, in thousands and thousands of ways. In a word, the wickedness there is indescribable.
4870. In some languages in the world, are some such natural [i. e. spontaneously-formed] words also given; and the most ancient language was no other than such speech of spirits - a speech perfectly natural. Man's interior ideas themselves are also in that language, although man is ignorant thereof - which is apparent from the fact that man, after death, when amongst spirits, speaks that language without instruction.
5253. 'And there is no one who can interpret it' means ignorance about what it held within it. This is clear from the meaning of 'interpreting' as what something held within it, dealt with in 5093, 5105, 5107, 5141 - ignorance about what it held within it therefore being meant by 'no one who can interpret it'. In the internal sense 'no one' does not mean no one or nobody, but simply absence or non-existence. Here therefore that which is 'not' is meant, thus something that is unknown to people or of which they are ignorant. The explanation for this is that one does not see in the internal sense any particular person, or indeed anything that has to do specifically with any person, see 5225; and by the expression 'no one' or nobody' no more than some general aspect of a person is implied.
 There are in general three elements which depart from the literal sense of the Word when it becomes the internal sense; these are the temporal, the spatial, and the personal. The reason for this is that neither time nor space exists in the spiritual world. These two elements belong properly to the natural order, which also accounts for its being said that those who die depart from the realm of time, leaving temporal concerns behind them. And the reason why in the spiritual world they do not see anything that has to do specifically with some person is that any focusing, when they speak, on some particular person narrows down and limits the idea they have in mind; such a focusing prevents any broadening or removal of limits to their idea. Their use, when they speak, of broadened and unlimited ideas renders their language universal, a language that includes and enables them to express countless and also wondrous ideas. This is what the language used by angels is like, especially that used by celestial angels, which, compared with that employed by others, knows no limitations. This being so, the whole of their speech reaches into what is infinite and into what is eternal, consequently into the Divine of the Lord.
Heaven and Hell
261. This writing in characters of a heavenly form is in use in the inmost heaven, the angels of which surpass all others in wisdom. By means of these characters, they express the affections, from which thoughts flow and follow in order, in accordance with the subject treated of. Consequently these writings, which I have also been permitted to see, involve arcana which thought cannot exhaust. But such writings do not exist in the lower heavens. The writings there resemble the writings in the world, having like characters, and yet they are not intelligible to man, because they are in angelic language; and angelic language is such that it has nothing in common with human languages (n. 237). For by the vowels they express affections, by the consonants the ideas of thought from the affections, and by the words from these the sense of the matter (see above, n. 236, 241). Moreover, in this writing, which I have also seen, more is involved in a few words than a man can express in several pages. In this way they have the Word written in the lower heavens, and in the inmost heaven by heavenly characters.
4342. CONCERNING THE INTERIOR MEMORY AND THE SPEECH THENCE PROCEEDING.
I conversed with spirits on the subject of their language or speech being the universal of all languages. When they converse with each other, they are unable to utter the name of any man whatever, or a word of any human language, but when they converse with me they think it is from themselves, but it is from my corporeal or material memory, whereby their ideas flow into names and words. Affirming that they could do it, they made the attempt among themselves to pronounce the name of Abraham, but were unable, as their speech is not [a speech] of words, but of ideas; which are formed into the origins of words. It thence appeared - and I spoke with them on the subject that absolutely nothing of vocal speech, much less the name of any man, kingdom, or region, could pass to spirits, but that it perishes with man, and that the sense only remains, which is such that while it is obscure to man, it becomes distinct with spirits, and is branched out into [particular] ideas. When spirits think of any person, city, or the like, of which they have had an idea derived from their experience in the world, they barely bring up the idea before them, that is, whatever they have heard or seen or conceived of a man, a kingdom, a city, which idea is sometimes simultaneous, sometimes ramified into many, and from thence flows their speech and a full perception. Thus also I have often spoken with spirits, namely in their own speech, and they perceived everything distinctly, and more things indeed in a moment than could be uttered in an hour, because it embraces in its bosom as much as the internal sight and thought, and by this can be presented almost simultaneously what would require a long time to utter and many pages to contain, as anyone may be satisfied who will attend to it. - 1749, August 6.
4405. CONCERNING MARRIAGES AND ADULTERIES.
There were certain spirits who infested me with a peculiar cunning by a very gentle, and, as it were, waving influx, and quickly averted all my thoughts. Their influx was peculiar, and such as I had not previously experienced. After many such wiles and machinations, and after representations had been presented to them, that they might be led to desist from such things, but in vain, I at length spoke with one of them, perceiving that when he lived in the world he had been the leader of a certain army. I spoke with him concerning marriage and adulteries, observing that he had accounted adulteries as nothing in the life of his body. I spoke with him in the language of spirits, illustrated by representative ideas; for the language of spirits is such that, in expressing anything, they also present it, as it were visible, but in modes which cannot be described. Affections, cupidities, and similar things are presented to the life by variations of light, and these too modified with an almost endless variety. This speech is perceived very rapidly, so that more can be expressed [by it] in a moment, than by human speech in hours. The discourse was concerning adulteries, that they are abominable, although they appear before those who are such in the light of their life, as pleasant; but that they are abominable was shown by this, that marriages are the seminaries of the human race, and thence of the heavenly kingdom, thus of all the men in the earth, and of souls, of spirits, and of angels in the heavens, and [that] therefore they were to be held sacred, and never to be violated; that thence also in the Word, and among the precepts of the Decalogue, adulteries were so severely prohibited; that civil laws also throughout the world utterly prohibit them as things to be abhorred; that all such when they only approach to the heavenly societies perceive an insufferable stench from themselves, and are precipitated as if into hell, because [adulteries] are contrary to heavenly things, and because heaven and mutual love which makes heaven, are founded in conjugial love, and the kingdom itself of the Lord is a marriage, and all conjugial love descends from it, because from the Lord, and intimately conjoins minds, penetrates and affects them; as also, that the light of his life, which was adulterous and appeared to him so delightful, if it only approached heaven, would be turned into dire and infernal darkness, so that he would then think his life, from which he would perceive such a light with horror, to be altogether infernal. It was given me to say these things to him; whereupon he answered, that he never felt anything of this kind in the world. He would have objected ratiocinations, but it was said to him, that he could object a thousand ratiocinations favoring the delight of his life, until he became so entirely blinded as to believe [adulteries] lawful, for which reason it was not even permitted him to act by ratiocinations, because this [sanctity of marriage] is most true, and the [things asserted] are heavenly and eternal verities, thoroughly attested from experience as was said to him. It was at length shown that adulteries destroy conjugial love, which is the fundamental of all the loves of man. Being thus convicted he was indignant, nor was he able to say anything, but that he had never heard and thought thus in the life of the body. Pr: Eugenius. It was said moreover, because he wished to act by ratiocinations, that the truths which had been spoken to him should first be refuted [by him] and shown not to be truths, and that he ought not to speak from the delight of his life, and that afterwards, when he was convinced that adulteries are vile and that he was in another life, he then might look to ratiocinations and from his state judge of their true quality.
Heaven and Hell
241. The angels of the Lord's celestial kingdom speak in a way resembling the speech of the angels of the Lord's spiritual kingdom, but it is from more interior thought. Celestial angels are in the good of love to the Lord, and therefore speak from wisdom; while spiritual angels are in the good of charity towards the neighbour, which in its essence is truth (n. 225), and therefore speak from intelligence, for wisdom is from good, and intelligence is from truth. For this reason the speech of celestial angels is like a gentle stream, soft, and as it were continuous; but the speech of spiritual angels is slightly vibratory and divided. The speech of celestial angels has much of the tones of the vowels u and a; while the speech of spiritual angels has much of the tones of e and i; for the vowels stand for tone, and in the tone there is affection, the tone of the speech of angels corresponding to their affection, as has been said above (n. 236) while the vocal articulations, which are words, correspond to the ideas of thought which are derived from affection. As vowels are not essential to a language, but serve by means of tones to elevate the words to the various affections according to each one's state, so in the Hebrew tongue the vowels are not expressed, and are also variously pronounced. From this a man's quality as to his affection and love is known to the angels. The speech of celestial angels is quite lacking in hard consonants, and it rarely passes from one consonant to another without the interposition of a word beginning with a vowel. This is why in the Word the particle "and" is so often interposed, as can be confirmed by those who read the Word in the Hebrew language, in which that word is soft, beginning and ending with a vowel sound. Again, in the Word, in Hebrew, it can in some measure be known from the words used whether they belong to the celestial class or the spiritual class, that is, whether they involve good or truth. Those involving good partake largely of the sounds of u and o, and also somewhat of a, while those involving truth partake of the sounds of e and i. Because it is especially in tones that affections show themselves, so in human speech, when great subjects are discussed, such as heaven (coelum) and God (Deus), those words are preferred that contain the vowels u and a. Musical tones also, whenever such themes are to be expressed, rise to the same fullness; but not when less exalted themes are considered. By such means musical art is able to express affections of various kinds.
Heaven and Hell
236. In the entire heaven all have one language, and, from whatever society they come whether near or remote, they all understand one another. Language there is not learned but is implanted by nature with every one, for it flows from their very affection and thought. The tones of their speech correspond to their affection, and the vocal articulations which are words correspond to the ideas of thought that spring from the affection; and because of this correspondence the speech itself is spiritual, for it is affection sounding and thought speaking.  Any one who gives any thought to it can know that all thought is from affection which pertains to love, and that the ideas of thought are the various forms into which the general affection is distributed. For no thought or idea is possible apart from affection-their soul and life being from it. This enables angels to know, merely from another's speech, what he is-from the tone what his affection is, and from the vocal articulations of sound or words what his mind is. The wiser angels know from a single series of words, what the ruling affection is, for to that affection they chiefly attend.  It is known that each individual has a variety of affections, one when in joy, another when in grief another when in pity and compassion, another when in sincerity and truth, another when in love and charity, another when in zeal or in rage, another when in simulation and deceit, another when in quest of honour and glory, and so on, but the ruling affection or love is in all of these. Therefore, the wiser angels, because they perceive this, know from the speech the whole state of another. This it has been granted me to know from much experience.  I have heard angels disclosing the character of another's life merely from hearing him speak. They also said that from some of the ideas of another's thought they could know all things of his life, because from those ideas they know his ruling love, in which are all things in their order. They know also that man's book of life is nothing else.
319. Everything confirmed by both the will and the understanding remains to eternity because everyone is his own love, and love belongs to the will; also because every man is his own good or his own evil, for everything is called good, and likewise evil, that belongs to the love. Since a man is his own love he is also the form of his love, and may be called the organ of his life's love. It was stated above (n. 279) that the affections of a man's love and his consequent thoughts are changes and variations of the state and form of the organic substances of his mind, and what these changes and variations are and their nature will now be explained. Some idea of these may be obtained from the heart and lungs, where there are alternate expansions and compressions, or dilations and contractions, called in the heart systole and diastole, and in the lungs respirations; these are reciprocal extensions and retractions, or expansions and contractions of their lobes; such are the changes and variations of the state of the heart and lungs. There are similar changes and variations in the other viscera of the body and also in their parts, by which the blood and the animal juices are received and passed on.
 There are also similar changes and variations in the organic forms of the mind, which are the subjects of man's affections and thoughts, as was shown above; with this difference, that their expansions and compressions, or reciprocal actions, are respectively in such greater perfection that they cannot be expressed in words of natural language, but only in words of spiritual language which indicate by their sound that these changes and variations are vortex-like inward and outward gyrations, after the manner of perpetually circling spirals wonderfully combined into forms receptive of life.
 The nature of those purely organic substances and forms in the wicked and in the good will now be stated. In the good those spiral forms are moved forward but in the wicked backward, and those that are moved forward are turned towards the Lord and receive influx from Him; while those that are moved backward are turned towards hell and receive influx from hell. It should be known that in the degree that they are turned backward, they are open behind and closed in front; and, on the other hand, in the degree that they are turned forward, they are open in front and closed behind.
 Hence it may be evident what kind of a form or organ a wicked man is, and what kind of a form or organ a good man is, and that they are turned in opposite directions; and as the turning once established cannot be reversed it is clear that such as a man is when he dies such he remains to eternity. It is the love of man's will that makes this turning, or which converts and inverts; for, as was said above, every man is his own love. Hence it is that after death everyone goes the way of his love: he who is in a good love goes to heaven, and he who is in an evil love goes to hell; nor does man rest but in that society where his ruling love is; and what is wonderful, everyone knows the way, as though he scented it with his nostrils.
26. The Word
I have examined the way spiritual angels frame the words of their speech, and I discovered that they frame them and utter them according to and in consequence of ideas having to do with the things they symbolize. For example, when they say or pronounce "horse and carriage," they then use an expression that carries the symbolic meanings of these things, such as using a word for horse that comes from ideas having to do with the intellect, and a word for carriage that comes from ideas having to do with doctrine from the Word. And so on with the rest of their expressions. Thus they speak according to the correspondence about the things they see, even as people do. In short, they give names to things in accordance with their correspondence.
 It has consequently now been revealed to these angels that they use correspondences in the words of their speech. This they did not know before, but they discovered it when they were in a natural state with me, by examining in that state the ideas they had of things in a spiritual state. In a word, the expressions of their speech or language are all formed in accordance with correspondences.
 I asked the angels how they would write "horses harnessed to a carriage." They said they would write simply l, and that this letter would express it. I then asked how they would write "understanding of doctrine." They said they would do so likewise by writing l, only then they would have a higher thought of it. This, too, made it apparent that the expressions of their language involve correspondences. But few of them had paid any attention to this, just as few in this world give any thought to spiritual light when the light of the intellect is referred to, or when enlightenment and seeing the light are mentioned, or as few give any thought to spiritual fire and heat when heavenly fire is alluded to as the fire that burns in the heart, not knowing that fire and its heat correspond to love in the heart, that is, in the will, and that light corresponds to truth in the intellect.
5102. CONCERNING THE SPEECH OF SPIRITS, AND OF THE ANGELS IN THE HEAVENS.
There are three kinds of speech, the celestial, the spiritual and the natural, and one inflows into another and forms it. The Natural is the speech of men, and into it inflows Spiritual speech - which is with man, but man is ignorant of it [so long as he is in the world]; thus, it inflows through the man's interiors, which are in heaven. In such speech are the lowest spirits, [who are] with man when he is communing with himself, and when man speaks with spirits, as happens to some. Spiritual speech is of the quality which belongs to spirits and the angels in the second heaven, or in the Spiritual Kingdom. It is such a speech as is man's interior thought - of the quality of which he himself is ignorant, [and which exists] independently of the words of human speech; for man thinks apart from words; - and from it he comprehends a thousand things in a moment. This thought becomes his speech in the other life, and indeed everybody's. Hence it is that all spirits can be associated, as regards speech, and that everyone has it. It is sonorous, and as it were verbal; but the words are what are called intellectual ideas. It is speaking thought, like the interior thought which is excited by the act of hearing, when it passes into the expression of the eye. It should be known, moreover, that, when spirits are in their speech, they do not know anything about natural speech, and when they are in natural speech they do not know anything about spiritual speech, and scarcely that there is such a thing; for they are not able to pass from the one to the other at pleasure, but it occurs by removal from man. This speech, also, can be written. I have seen papers and letters written in this language, which I was able to read, but not in the least to understand, unless I was in the spirit separate from the body. The letters were similar [to those of natural language]. This Spiritual speech corresponds to the respiration of the lungs. This speech passes, from spirits out of their affections, it is true; but they are spiritual [affections], which correspond to the respiration. Thus, it flows spontaneously, and is, consequently, instinctive and universal.
There are wonderful things which could be related about it. But Celestial speech is of the affections which are of love, and correspond to the cardiacal functions, as spiritual speech does to the respiratory; but this speech is incomprehensible; and, still, it is the universal of all. It, also, is in man, [in] his inmosts, when these are opened to the Lord by means of love. They [in whom these inmosts are open], perceive the leasts of all the things of the Word, even to the little horns* - as was shown; also all and everyone of the affections of the Word. They are in the inmost sense, which treats of the Lord. They perceive, [when] with man, all things of his affection and love, whether he speaks, or sighs, or beats his breast, or weeps, or rejoices: they perceive the ends. Their ideas, therefore, in the thought and speech, are not from the understanding separate from the will, but conjoined with it; so that it is as if they were from the will itself. But, as was said, their speech is incomprehensible [to the spiritual] as to interior affections, but still intelligible as to the words thence derived; for the will speaks by means of the understanding. The intellectual affects spiritual [angels]; but their voluntary does not do so.
5114. Hence it is, also, that, in the Hebrew language, and in the Most Ancient language in general, there were words proper to the Celestial class, others proper to the Spiritual class, and some common to both. This is also observable, to a certain extent, in some other languages.
5579. Moreover, it was told me out of heaven that their writing there, in the celestial kingdom, was wholly different from the writing in the spiritual kingdom. In the spiritual kingdom, it occurs through words written in a like diction to that which is written in the world, but their words there belong to their natural* or universal language, in which all spirits and angels are versed. I often saw such words in the Roman characters; but, when I was in the natural** sphere I understood nothing at all of it. There were the words, but they were not understood; but they are understood by any spirit you please, whoever he may be. It was according to their natural* language which before. But the writing of the celestials is entirely different. It consists of various inflections in various forms; and every curvature and inflection signifies something. And thus they express, in one such form, more things than can be expressed by very, very many words in the spiritual tongue; while, yet, it is only some exterior things [that they express]. Thus, celestial angels know perfectly how to write and read; and this without any previous instruction.
3719. 'And said, How awesome is this place' means the holiness of the state. This is clear from the meaning of 'fear' as a holy change, dealt with immediately above in 3718 (because the word for 'awesome' in the original language is derived from the same word as fear is derived from, holiness is therefore meant by it. And because in the internal sense 'fear' means that which is holy, as stated immediately above, the same word in the original language also means veneration and respect, which likewise is holy fear); and from the meaning of 'place' as state, dealt with just above in 3716.
295. The state of souls after death in regard to memory
Spirits believe, as do souls after the death of the body, that they utilize all of the kind of memory they had in the life of the body. But by a revealing experience today, like some earlier ones, I have learned - and spoken with souls and spirits about the same matter, who were obliged to admit it - that they have no memory of personal matters, but a more inward memory that pertains to character, on which all and the least things are inscribed that they had ever thought in the life of the body and that they had done. One might say that knowledge more or less occupies the surface, and everything related to feelings constitutes the core.
1) To souls and spirits who were able to speak from their character making use of the knowledge within me, it could by no means appear otherwise than that they had retained all remembrance
of their bodily life. They put on that knowledge as if it were theirs, so that they could not know otherwise than that my memory was theirs. This happened in one way with those I had known in life, in another with those I had not known. This is obvious from the single fact, to which I bear witness, that all spirits when they came to me were able to speak in my vernacular tongue, no matter where they had been born, not knowing but that it was their language and that they had been born into it. About their own language they knew nothing whatever.
2) Their character takes the place of memory, so that they loathe, or love, truths or goodness, as if by some keen scent. For as soon as anything comes along that is not agreeable to their character, they bend it off toward things that soothe their character. They do this so skillfully and amazingly that they do not know but that they are acting from the memory.
Moreover, they can even converse among themselves on a variety of subjects from things in a person [they are with] - which is also amazing, although I did not hear [the discussion] - and then likewise, not know otherwise, than that they are speaking from their own former memory. Certain acquaintances were surprised at this, but still could not but acknowledge the truth of it.
But it must be understood that all things, even the very least, are so governed by God the Messiah that they cannot take out of anyone's memory any but those things that can serve a use. Thus it is wonderful the way all things and each detail are governed.
3) Nor should there be any doubt but that each and every detail inscribed on [the memory] during the life of the body can also be brought forth and shown to them, as I have experienced myself most lucidly. The smallest details are brought out, and even in their own point of time, and I could not in any way prevent it. To recount the particular experiences would be a needlessly lengthy undertaking. 1747, the 4th day of December.
14. And they that hear the words of the prophecy, signifies that they live according to the doctrine of heaven. This is evident from the signification of "hearing," as being to perceive and obey (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2542, 3869, 4653, 5017, 7216, 8361, 8990, 9311, 9397, 10061); thus also to live according to that doctrine; for those who perceive and obey the doctrine of heaven live according to it; and from the signification of "the words of the prophecy," as being the truths that pertain to the doctrine of heaven; for "words" are truths (n. 4692, 5075); and "prophecy" is doctrine (n. 2534, 7269); here it is the doctrine of heaven, since it is prophecy belonging to the Word, and the Word is from heaven. To "hear" is to obey and to live, because with celestial angels the things that are heard enter into the life; but as this is a thing unknown, I would like to explain it briefly.
There are two senses given to man which serve as means of receiving the things whereby the rational is formed, and also the things by which man is reformed; these are the sense of sight and the sense of hearing; the other senses are for other uses. The things that enter by the sense of sight enter into man's understanding and enlighten it, for which reason by "sight" is signified the understanding enlightened, for the understanding corresponds to the sight of the eye, as the light of heaven corresponds to the light of the world. The things, however, that enter by the sense of hearing enter both into the understanding and into the will, and for this reason by "the hearing" is signified perception and obedience. Consequently, in human language, to "hear" anyone, and to "give ear to" anyone, also to "listen to," and "hearken to," are common expressions; and by "hearing anyone" is meant to perceive, and by "giving ear to," as also by "listening to" is meant to obey; while "hearkening to" means either perceiving or obeying. These expressions flowed down into human language out of the spiritual world, where man's spirit is. Their origin in the spiritual world shall also be explained.
 Those there who are in the province of the ear are obediences from perception. (That all who are in the spiritual world are in some province that is named from the members, organs, or viscera of man, because they correspond thereto, may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 87-102.) Moreover, the province of the ear is in the axis of heaven; into it, therefore, or into those who are there, the whole spiritual world flows in, with the perception that "thus must it be done;" for this is the reigning perception in heaven; from this it is that those who are in that province are obediences from perception. That the things that enter by hearing enter immediately through the understanding into the will, may be further illustrated by the way in which angels of the celestial kingdom, who are most wise, are instructed. These angels receive all their wisdom by hearing, and not by sight; for whatsoever they hear about Divine things, they receive in the will from veneration and love, and make it of their life; and because they receive these things not first in the memory, but immediately in the life, they do not speak about matters of faith, but when these are mentioned by others, they answer, "Yea, yea," or "Nay, nay," according to the Lord's words in Matthew 5:37. From this it is evident that hearing is given to man chiefly for the reception of wisdom, and sight for the reception of intelligence. Wisdom is to perceive, to will, and to do; and intelligence is to know and to perceive. (That the celestial angels imbibe wisdom by hearing, not by sight, may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 270, 271; and more concerning those angels, n. 20-28.)
2833. CONCERNING THE HEBREW LANGUAGE.
There are many words in the Hebrew language which contain a complex of many ideas in one, from opposite to opposite, so that the sense cannot be understood but from series, and this from the interior, otherwise than is the case in other languages, because they were in representatives, so that in one general idea might be many things, and so they did not come to interiors, because they were of such a character. - 1748, August 15.
Mental images among spirits are not like our words, as we can deduce from the fact that those of spirits come down into the words of every language. Therefore, if the ideas or speech of some spirit happened to flow into different people who spoke different languages, then even though he spoke in only one way, each would hear him talking in their own language or idiom.
So ideas of this kind are a different matter among spirits. They notice at once if profane mental images are mixed with holy ones. They strike their minds immediately, and they are aware of the profanation, differently than people on earth. 1748, 11 March.
9306. 'Take notice of his face' means holy fear. This is clear from the meaning of 'taking notice of the face', when it has reference to the Lord, whom 'the angel' is used to mean to here, as fearing that He may be angry on account of evils, or provoked on account of transgressions, as below; and fearing these things is holy fear. Regarding this fear, see 2826, 3718, 3719, 5459, 5534, 7280, 7788, 8816, 8925. The words 'taking notice of his face' are used because 'the face' means the interior things that constitute a person's life, thus his thought and affection, and in particular his faith and love. The reason for this is that the face has been fashioned so that it can produce an image of a person's interiors. It has been so fashioned to the end that those things which belong to the internal man may appear within the external, thus to the end that those things which belong to the spiritual world can be visualized in the natural world and so have an effect on one's neighbour. It is well known that the face presents visually, or as if in a mirror, what a person thinks and loves. This is so with honest people's faces, and especially with angels' faces, see 1999, 2434, 3527, 3573, 4066, 4326, 4796-4799, 5102, 5695, 6604, 8248-8250. For this reason 'face' in the original language is a general term that is used to describe the feelings a person has which reveal themselves, such as those of indulgence, favour, goodwill, helpfulness, or kindness, and also lack of pity, anger, or vengeance. So it is that in that language when this word is coupled with another it means beside, with, in front of, on account of, or else against, thus whatever is within, from, for, or against the person himself. For as has been stated, 'the face' is a person's true self, or that present within a person which reveals itself.
 All this enables one to know what is meant by the face of Jehovah, or 'the face of the angel', who in this instance is the Lord in respect of His Divine Human - namely the Divine Good of Divine Love, and the Divine Truth emanating from that Divine Good, since these reside within Jehovah or the Lord, come from Him, indeed are Himself, see 222, 223, 5585. From this it is evident what 'the face of Jehovah' means in the Blessing,
Jehovah make His face shine upon you and be merciful to you. Jehovah lift up His face upon you and give you peace. Num. 6:25, 26.
God be merciful to us and bless us and make His face shine upon us. Ps. 67:1.
The like may be seen in Ps. 80:3, 7, 19; 119:134, 135; Dan. 9:17; and in other places.
 So it is that the Lord's Divine Human is called 'the angel of Jehovah's face' in Isaiah,
I will cause the mercies of Jehovah to be remembered. He has rewarded* them according to His mercies, and according to the abundance of His mercies; and He became their Saviour. And the angel of His face saved them; in His love and in His pity He redeemed them. Isa. 63:7-9.
The reason why the Lord's Divine Human is called 'the angel of Jehovah's face' is that the Divine Human is the Divine Himself facially, that is, in outward form, as also the Lord teaches in John,
If you know Me you know My Father also, and from now on you know Him and have seen Him. Philip said, Show us the Father. Jesus said to him, Have I been with you so long, and yet you do not know Me, Philip? He who has seen Me has seen the Father. I am in the Father and the Father is in Me; believe Me that I am in the Father and the Father is in Me. John 14:7-11.
 'Jehovah's (or the Lord's) face' also means anger, vengeance, punishment, and ill. It does so because simple people, in accepting the general idea that all things come from God, believe that even ill, especially the misery of punishment, comes from Him. For this reason - in keeping with that general idea, and also with appearances - anger, vengeance, punishment, or ill is attributed to Jehovah the Lord, when in fact the Lord is not the source of them but man. Regarding this, see 1861, 2447, 5798, 6071, 6832, 6991, 6997, 7533, 7632, 7877, 7926, 8197, 8227, 8228, 8282, 8483, 8632, 8875, 9128. This kind of meaning appears here in 'take notice of his face, lest you provoke him, for he will not bear your transgression', and also in Leviticus,
Whoever eats any blood, I will set My face against the soul eating blood and will cut him off from among his people. Lev. 17:10.
I have set My face against the city for ill and not for good. Jer. 21:10.
And in David,
Jehovah's face is against evildoers, to cut off the memory of them from the earth. Ps. 34:16.
5102. CONCERNING THE SPEECH OF SPIRITS, AND OF THE ANGELS IN THE HEAVENS.
There are three kinds of speech, the celestial, the spiritual and the natural, and one inflows into another and forms it. The Natural is the speech of men, and into it inflows Spiritual speech - which is with man, but man is ignorant of it [so long as he is in the world]; thus, it inflows through the man's interiors, which are in heaven. In such speech are the lowest spirits, [who are] with man when he is communing with himself, and when man speaks with spirits, as happens to some. Spiritual speech is of the quality which belongs to spirits and the angels in the second heaven, or in the Spiritual Kingdom. It is such a speech as is man's interior thought - of the quality of which he himself is ignorant, [and which exists] independently of the words of human speech; for man thinks apart from words; - and from it he comprehends a thousand things in a moment. This thought becomes his speech in the other life, and indeed everybody's. Hence it is that all spirits can be associated, as regards speech, and that everyone has it. It is sonorous, and as it were verbal; but the words are what are called intellectual ideas. It is speaking thought, like the interior thought which is excited by the act of hearing, when it passes into the expression of the eye. It should be known, moreover, that, when spirits are in their speech, they do not know anything about natural speech, and when they are in natural speech they do not know anything about spiritual speech, and scarcely that there is such a thing; for they are not able to pass from the one to the other at pleasure, but it occurs by removal from man. This speech, also, can be written. I have seen papers and letters written in this language, which I was able to read, but not in the least to understand, unless I was in the spirit separate from the body. The letters were similar [to those of natural language]. This Spiritual speech corresponds to the respiration of the lungs. This speech passes, from spirits out of their affections, it is true; but they are spiritual [affections], which correspond to the respiration. Thus, it flows spontaneously, and is, consequently, instinctive and universal. There are wonderful things which could be related about it. But Celestial speech is of the affections which are of love, and correspond to the cardiacal functions, as spiritual speech does to the respiratory; but this speech is incomprehensible; and, still, it is the universal of all. It, also, is in man, [in] his inmosts, when these are opened to the Lord by means of love. They [in whom these inmosts are open], perceive the leasts of all the things of the Word, even to the little horns* - as was shown; also all and everyone of the affections of the Word. They are in the inmost sense, which treats of the Lord. They perceive, [when] with man, all things of his affection and love, whether he speaks, or sighs, or beats his breast, or weeps, or rejoices: they perceive the ends. Their ideas, therefore, in the thought and speech, are not from the understanding separate from the will, but conjoined with it; so that it is as if they were from the will itself. But, as was said, their speech is incomprehensible [to the spiritual] as to interior affections, but still intelligible as to the words thence derived; for the will speaks by means of the understanding. The intellectual affects spiritual [angels]; but their voluntary does not do so.
6987. Who maketh man's mouth? That this signifies utterance, is evident from the signification of "mouth," as being the voice (of which above, n. 6985); and as it denotes the voice, it denotes utterance. What the "mouth" specifically signifies cannot be seen except from correspondence. The mouth together with the lips corresponds to the interior speech which is of the thought. The thought of man is active and passive; man has active thought when he speaks, and this may be called speaking thought; but his thought is passive when he does not speak; and the difference between the two can be seen by him who reflects. By the "mouth" of man is thus signified active or speaking thought, thus utterance.
 As regards active thought, which is signified by the "mouth," be it known that this thought also is speaking thought in its own way, and that by the activity of this speech it excites the organs of the body corresponding thereto. It appears as if the words of the speech were in the thought, but this is a fallacy; it is only the sense of the speech which is there, the nature of which man can scarcely know, for it is the speech of his spirit, which speech is universal speech, such as is the speech of spirits in the other life. When this speech flows into the correspondent organs of the body, it presents the speech of words, which is vastly different from the thought that produces it, as is very evident from the fact that a man can think in one minute what takes him a long space of time to speak or write; and this would not be the case if this thought were composed of words, as is the speech of the mouth. It is from the correspondence of the speech of the thought and the speech of the mouth, that when a man comes after death among spirits, he knows how to speak in the universal language, thus with spirits, no matter what had been their language in the world; and that he then scarcely knows otherwise than that he speaks there as in the world, when yet the words of their speech are not words such as man uses in the body, but are the ideas which had been of his thought, one idea containing very many things. For this reason spirits can utter in a moment what a man can scarcely utter in half an hour, and even then there are many things within the same idea which cannot possibly be expressed by bodily speech.
 Yet the angels in heaven speak in a different way from spirits; for the angels who are in heaven have their speech from intellectual ideas, which by the philosophers are called immaterial ideas; whereas spirits have their speech from ideas of the imagination, which are called material ideas; hence in one idea of the thought of the angels there are contained very many things which spirits cannot utter by many series of their ideas, besides many things which they cannot express at all. But when a spirit becomes an angel, he is in angelic speech, just as a man when after death he becomes a spirit, is in the speech of spirits, and for a similar reason. From all this it can be seen what active thought is, namely, that it is the speech of man's spirit.
5943. THE SPEECH OF ANGELS, EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR.
I have been in company with the angels, and it has been granted to become acquainted with their speech by experience. There are four kinds of speech, like as there are four kinds of angels: a material speech of visible objects, and an interior speech of visual things; which are speeches of the understanding, or of the thought. There is a speech of the affections of the body, and a speech of the affections of the heart; which are speeches of the will, or of the affection. Some who were able to be in the speech of the affections of the body, conversed with me, and expressed my affections when relating to the body, in suitable terms; at which I was astonished that they were able to express these in terms, and perfectly suitable ones, and the exterior and interior affections of the body without exception. They were delightful and charming, and conjoined with many affections which were expressed. Certain spirits from a distance heard and understood; but I, being in the natural [state], did not hear the words, but I perceived the affections which they uttered in the words. This speech cannot be understood by those who are in the visible things only, as they also said. But it was told them that there is also a speech of the heart, which is a speech of love to the Lord. These afterwards spoke with the former ones, and said that they did not hear, nor were they able to hear the words, but that they perceived the things which they uttered, from affection, as I did when the former ones spoke. Regarding the former speech, it was said that it was indeed similar to the speech of visual things, as regards the words which the letters compose, but still that each letter is uttered differently, namely, according to the affection; and that there is also this difference, that other words are unintelligible to those who are in visual things alone. But the speech of visual things consists in speaking and expressing those things which are seen by the eyes, and describing them, and this according to visual and intellectual ideas; for example, houses, palaces, gardens, men's clothing, and many other things. This speech is both exterior and interior. The exterior is material or sensual; the interior is natural, or intellectual.
I afterwards heard spirits conversing with angels of the interior heaven. They said that they heard speech with the ears, but yet did not comprehend, because things which were of interior wisdom were expressed by their words, and, inasmuch as they did not understand these, therefore neither did they the words.
5589. This memory is pictorial, formed from the visible objects in the world; and when it becomes active through the influx of light out of heaven, it constitutes that speech - which, because it is from the light of heaven, renders the ideas thereof conformable to the nature of the things in the universe. Every single thing has its conformity from the influx of heaven. Those heavenly-fashioned ideas, fall, among spirits, into words, which, also, are distinctly spoken out, and distinctly and sonorously heard amongst themselves, like all speeches on the earths amongst men. Hence it is that the speech of spirits is a natural* speech, and also the universal of all, whereby spirits from every nation of the earth, and from every globe, are able to converse together; and this as readily with the most ancient people as with the moderns. Into this speech, every man spontaneously comes immediately after death; and when he then speaks, he is unaware that he has ever spoken differently. Hence, also, it is manifest, that the common speech of spirits is in every man whatsoever, and would become of the same character [as it is with spirits] if one man should enter into the thought or another with his own thought; and, also, that thus he can bring forth, in one moment, more things than, by words, during half-an-hour. From these things it was also manifest, that that speech is one of words, but entirely different words, formed according to the notion of the thing, and articulated by means of sound, so that the sound is articulated, expressing all the things belonging to the matter. It differs from the speech of brutes in this way: that that is continuous, but that of spirits discrete, because there is with them the thought of the thing itself out of heaven and from the Divine truth there, - which, there, is light. Hence, with men, [speech] is discrete and articulate, because they are intellectual: with beasts it is continuous.
5589a. But how much the words of the language of spirits differ from the words of the language of men in this world, could also be plain to me from various considerations. It can be expressed in the world by sound, even distinctly and articulately; but nobody there can understand it, because it is the spiritual of speech but not the natural - in which latter man is. Speech also differs from the interior thought of man and of spirit; for it is exterior, and care is taken lest [that] thought should enter it; for thus would be manifested of what sort the spirit was. Therefore, those in the other life who are rational, or who speak from reason, and those who speak only from the memory of a thing without its thought, speak alike; and those there are also able, as much as in the world, to pretend that they are learned, although they speak solely from the memory.
5589b. Thus also preachers speak, each one from his doctrine without interior ideas at the same time. They only let themselves into the exterior affections, or into a holy external state, in which their speech is just as in the world. The hearers hear only the speech in such affection, and are affected from that apart from interior affection.
5589c. In a word, their speech is every bit as natural* as hearing, sight, taste, touch and smell are natural.* Such natural* [speech] man in the world possesses, just as much as spirits do; but it is only manifested in the other life. There are many reasons why it is not manifested in the world - of which, elsewhere.
Earths in the Universe
54. I was also shown how thoughts are expressed by means of the face. A person's looks display the affections his love produces and their changes; and variations in their inward form express thoughts. It is impossible to describe these more fully. The inhabitants of Jupiter also use verbal speech, but it does not sound so loud as ours. One way of speaking assists the other, and facial speech gives life to verbal speech.
 I was told by angels that the earliest kind of speech of all peoples on each world was by facial expression; and it originated from two areas, the lips and the eyes. The reason why this was the earliest form of speech was that the face was designed to portray what a person thinks and wants. The face is therefore called the picture and indicator of the mind. Another reason is that in the most ancient or earliest times honesty demanded that what a person wanted should shine out from his face, and no one thought of doing anything else or wanted to do so. Thus too the affections of the mind and the thoughts arising from them could be vividly and fully displayed. This enabled many things to be presented simultaneously to the eye, as it were, in visible form. This kind of speech in consequence was as much better than verbal speech as sight is better than hearing: the difference between seeing the countryside and envisaging it by listening to a verbal description.
They also said that this kind of speech matched the speech of the angels, with whom human beings were in the habit of communicating in those times. In fact, when the face speaks, or the mind speaks through the face, angelic speech reaches its final, natural form in a person; but not when the mouth speaks in words. Anyone can grasp that the most ancient people could not have had verbal speech, since the words of language are not directly inherent in things, but need to be invented and applied to them; and this could only happen over a period of time.#
 This kind of speech lasted so long as honesty and uprightness were observed by people. But as soon as people started to think one thing in their minds and say another, which happened when people began to love themselves and not their neighbour, speech in words began to increase, while the face conveyed nothing or told lies. As a result the inward shape of the face changed, contracting and hardening, and beginning to be almost devoid of life. But its outward shape, fired by self-love, began to look alive to men's eyes. For what lies hidden underneath devoid of life is invisible to human eyes, but can be seen by angels, who can see what lies within.
This is what the faces are like of those who think one thing and say another. Pretence, hypocrisy, trickery and guile - which to-day pass for tactfulness - cause such results. But in the next life things are different; there you are not allowed to speak otherwise than you think. In fact, any disagreement is clearly perceptible in each single word; and when it is noticed the spirit who displays such disagreement is ejected from the company and punished. Afterwards various methods are applied to bring him back to speaking as he thinks and to thinking what he wants, so as to restore unanimity to his mind and banish division. The effect is, if he is good, that he wants what is good and thinks and speaks the truth as the result of good; if he is wicked, he wants what is evil and thinks and speaks falsely as the result of evil. Until this happens, a good man cannot be raised to heaven, nor a wicked one cast into hell. This is to ensure that hell contains nothing but wickedness and the falsity it produces, heaven nothing but good and the truth it produces.
# The Most Ancient people in this world were able to speak using the face and lips by means of inner breathing (AC 607, 1118, 7361). The inhabitants of certain other worlds have a similar manner of speaking (AC 4799, 7359, 8248, 10587). On the perfection and excellence of this manner of speaking (AC 7360, 10587, 10708).
3. 3. The Difference in General between Natural, Spiritual and Celestial Things
There are three heavens: a lowest one, a middle one, and a highest. In the lowest heaven the people are natural, but their natural quality stems either from the spiritual quality that belongs to the middle heaven or from the celestial quality that belongs to the third heaven. In the second heaven the people are spiritual, and in the third heaven celestial. There are also some in between, who are called spiritual- celestial. Many of these are preachers in the highest heaven.
 The difference between natural, spiritual and celestial things is such that there is no proportional relation between them. Therefore natural things cannot in any way by any approximation approach in likeness spiritual things, nor spiritual things celestial things. That is why the heavens are distinct. I have been given to know this from much experience. Again and again I have been conveyed into the company of spiritual angels, and I then spoke with them in their spiritual way of speaking, and what I said I then made a point of remembering. When I returned into my natural state-the state every person in the world is in-I then tried to recall what I had said from my earlier remembrance and write it down, but I could not. It was impossible. No words were to be found and not even any mental concepts by which to express it. The spiritual mental concepts and words were so removed from natural mental concepts and words that there was not the least approximation. Surprisingly, when I was in that heaven and spoke with angels, I then knew no other than that I was speaking in the same way that I speak with people here. But afterward I found out that the thoughts and speech were so dissimilar that the one could not approximate the other, consequently that they have proportional relation.
 There is a similar difference between spiritual and celestial things. I have been told that there is a similar difference, and also that the difference is such that no proportional relation or approximation is possible. But I could not be given confirmation of this through personal experience without actually being an angel of the middle heaven. It was therefore granted some angels of the middle heaven to be together with angels of the third heaven, and while there to think and speak with them, and also to make a point of remembering what they thought and what they said, and afterward to return to their own heaven. And they told me then that they could not express any idea or any word from the earlier state, that it was impossible; and they said in conclusion that there is no proportional relation or approximation.
 For the same reason I have a number of times been given to be in the presence of angels of the middle and highest heaven, and to hear them talking together (whenever this happened I had been in an interior natural state, removed from worldly and bodily concerns specifically, upon first waking from sleep); and I heard indescribable and inexpressible things, as we read happened with Paul.* And sometimes I was let into a perception and understanding of the things they talked about. The things they said were full of secrets having to do with the Lord, redemption, regeneration, providence, and other like things; and afterward I was given to see that I could not express or record those things using any spiritual or celestial term-but that they could nevertheless still be described in words of natural language, even to rational comprehension. I was also told that there are not any Divine mysteries that cannot be perceived and expressed naturally also, even though more generally and less perfectly; and that those who perceive such things naturally with their rational understanding from an affection for truth, are able afterward to both perceive and express the same things spiritually when they become spirits, and in a celestial way when they become angels; but not so others. For one Divine truth perceived and loved naturally is like a crystal or porcelain goblet which is afterward filled with wine, the nature of the wine being such as the nature of the truth was, and the quality of its taste, so to speak, such as was the quality of the affection for the truth.
 That there is such a difference, which may be called an unlimited one, between natural, spiritual and celestial things, can be seen from the difference in the thoughts of people and angels, and from the difference in their speech and also in the things they do, and from the difference in their forms of writing. From these things, as from so many proofs, it will become apparent what the one and the other are like, and how the perfections of all things ascend and pass from the world into heaven, and from one heaven into another.
 Regarding thoughts: All the thoughts of people, including each single idea in them, involve conceptions drawn from space, time, person, or material-things that appear in natural light or the light of the world. For no one can think anything apart from light, just as nothing can be seen without light. And natural light or the light of the world is lifeless, being from the sun of the world, which is nothing but fire. Nevertheless, the light of heaven flows into that light everywhere and continually, giving it life and making possible the perception and understanding of things. The light of the world by itself cannot impart any perceptive or intellectual ability or confer any natural or rational sight, but it does so from the light of heaven, because the light of heaven comes from the sun of heaven, which is the Lord and so is life itself. The influx of the light of heaven into the light of the world is like the influx of a cause into its effect-the nature of which will be explained elsewhere. It is apparent from this what natural thought is like, or ideas of thought in people, namely, that they are inseparably bound up with notions of space, time, personality and material. Because of this, those thoughts or ideas of thought are very limited and restricted, and so are crude, and must be called material. The thoughts of angels of the middle heaven, on the other hand, are all without notions of space, time, personality and material, so that they are unlimited and unrestricted. The objects of their thoughts are, like the thoughts themselves, spiritual, so that they think about them spiritually and not naturally. As for angels of the highest heaven, they do not have thoughts, but they have perceptions of the things they hear and see. Instead of thoughts they have affections, and these keep varying with them, just as thoughts keep varying in the case of spiritual angels.
 Regarding forms of speech: The things people say and the way they say them are like the ideas of their thoughts, for ideas of thought become words when they go out into speech. Consequently the speech of people in every word has something to do with space, time, personality, or material. By the same token, however, the things angels of the middle heaven say and the way they say them are like the ideas of their thoughts, for these are what the words of their speech express. On the other hand, the things angels of the highest heaven say and the way they say them all come from changes in their affections-though when they speak with spiritual angels, they speak as the spiritual do; but not so among themselves.
Since that is what the speech of angels is like, and what the speech of people is like, therefore their forms of speech are so different that they have nothing in common. They are so different that a person cannot understand any word an angel says, nor an angel any word a person says. I have listened to angels speaking and memorized the words, and have afterward tried to see whether any of those words matches any word in the expressions or languages of people, and there was not one. (Spiritual speech is the same for all; it is innate in everyone, and a person comes into it as soon as he becomes a spirit.)
Regarding forms of writing, this is like their speech. The writing of spiritual angels in its letters is similar to the writing of people in the world, but every letter has a meaning. Consequently if you saw it in a natural state, you would say it consisted only of letters. On the other hand, instances of writing in the highest heaven are not similar in their letters. They have letters formed by various curved strokes, not unlike the letters of Hebrew, but always rounded, with no straight lines anywhere. Each letter also carries some meaning, which they have a perception of from affection and not from thought. Because of all this, one who is natural does not comprehend a thing from spiritual writing, nor one who is spiritual a thing from natural writing. Neither does one who is spiritual comprehend anything from celestial writing, or one who is celestial anything from spiritual writing-unless he is with someone spiritual.
 It is similar with the things they do, which are many, for everyone is engaged in some activity. How the spiritual do what they do cannot be described to one who is natural, nor can how the celestial do what they do be described to one who is spiritual. For these differ as much as their thoughts, speech and writing.
 It can be seen from this what a difference there is between natural, spiritual and celestial things-that the difference is such that they have no accordance at all except by correspondences. This, too, is the reason that people do not know they have an association with spirits, and spirits that they have an association with people, when in fact there is a constant association. For a person could not live one minute without being in the midst of spirits in respect to his thoughts and affections, nor could spirits and angels live a moment without being with people. The reason is that there is a continual connection extending from first things to last things, thus from the Lord to mankind; and from creation the connection was established by correspondences, one that flows in through angels and spirits. Everything celestial flows into something spiritual, and everything spiritual into something natural, and it terminates in the last of this, which is physical and material, and there abides. Without such a final abode for intermediates to flow into, there would be no other permanence than that of a house built in the air. The human race is therefore the base and foundation of the heavens.
 No angel knows that there is such a difference between natural, spiritual and celestial things. The reason is that an angel does not change his state or go from a spiritual state into a natural one so as to be able to explore the differences. I have spoken with them about this, and they said they do not know the differences. They believed they thought, spoke, wrote and did things in the same way as in the world. But they were shown the truth by their changing their states so that they thought alternately now in the one, now in the other, and so that they likewise spoke alternately in the one and the other, and also read what they wrote in a spiritual state and in a natural state, and similarly did things; and they then found that there is such a difference that it cannot be described. It has been possible for me to instruct even angels on this point, because I have been given to be in both worlds alternately and to explore the one from the perspective of the other; and they have all admitted afterward that it is the case.
 Nevertheless, there is a similarity between the natural, spiritual and celestial states in regard to the various kinds of things that present themselves as objects of sight, taste, smell and hearing, and of the sense of touch. For to the sight angels all took like people in the world. Their clothes took similar, and their houses, also their gardens and parks, and their fields, likewise their bodies of land and water, as well as their various kinds of food and drink. So, too, do the animals of the land, the birds of the air, and the fishes in the waters, all of various kinds in their various species. Their speech sounds as it did in the world, also the rhythms and melodies of their vocal and instrumental music. Flavor is similar, and also the way things smell. In a word, everything that appears or makes itself perceptible to any sense does so similarly. But still the things in the other world are from a spiritual origin, and the angels therefore think of them spiritually and give them spiritual names.
Despite what has been said, however, even all these things as they appear and are perceived in the middle and highest heavens-in the excellence of their forms and harmonies and in their perfections, which are of a superior and surpassing preeminence-can only be described imperfectly. They can be described only as being like the most perfect things in the world, which are nevertheless imperfect in comparison to the things that are in heaven. * See 2 Corinthians 12:1-4.
875. To these things I will add these MEMORABLE OCCURRENCES.
One morning, having wakened from sleep, I saw two angels coming down out of heaven, one out of the south of heaven and the other out of the east of heaven, both of them in chariots to which white horses were harnessed. The chariot in which the angel from the south of heaven was carried was shining as if of silver, and the chariot in which the angel from the east of heaven was carried was shining as if of gold. And the reins which they were holding in their hands were gleaming as if from the flame-coloured light of the dawn. Thus were these two angels seen by me from afar off but when they were coming nearer they did not appear in a chariot but in their own angelic form, which is the human form. He who came from the east of heaven was in a shining purple garment, and he who came from the south of heaven was in one of shining blue. When these were in lower [states] below the heavens they were running to meet each other as if they were striving who should be first, and they embraced and kissed each other. I heard that these two angels when they lived in the world had been conjoined by an interior friendship, but now one was in the eastern heaven and the other in the southern heaven. In the eastern heaven are those who are in love from the Lord. In the southern heaven, however, are those who are in wisdom from the Lord.
 After they had spoken for some time about the magnificent things in their heavens this question came into their conversation, whether heaven in its essence is love or whether it is wisdom. They were in agreement right away that one is of the other, but were discussing of which one the other has its origin. The angel who was from the heaven of wisdom asked the other angel what love is, and he answered that love, having originated from the Lord as the Sun, is the vital heat of angels and men, thus it is their life. He also said that the derivations of love are termed affections, and that by means of them perceptions are produced and thus thoughts. 'From this it follows that wisdom by virtue of its origin is love; consequently that thought in its origin is the affection of that love. And [it follows] that it can be seen from a survey of the derivations in their order that thought is nothing else but the form of affection, and that this is not known because thoughts are in light but affections are in heat, and that therefore one reflects upon thoughts but not upon affections, as is the case with sound and speech. That thought is nothing else but the form of affection can also be illustrated by speech, for this is nothing else but the form of sound. It is also similar because sound corresponds to affection and speech to thought, and therefore affection sounds and thought speaks. This also can become clearly evident when put in this way (dicitur), "If you take sound away from speech, is there anything of speech?" Similarly "If you take affection away from thought, is there anything of thought?" From this it is plain that Love is everything of Wisdom, consequently that the essence of the heavens is Love and that their existence is Wisdom, or what is the same, that the heavens exist out of Divine Love and that they come into existence out of Divine Love by means of Divine Wisdom, and therefore, as was said before, the one is of the other.'
 At that time there was with me a novitiate spirit who on hearing this asked whether it is similar with charity and faith, because charity is of affection and faith is of thought. And the angel answered, 'It is entirely similar, for faith is nothing else but the form of charity as plainly as speech is the form of sound, for faith is also formed by charity just as speech is formed by sound. We in heaven also know about the mode of the formation, but there is not time to explain that here.' He added, 'By faith I understand spiritual faith in which the spirit and life is derived solely from charity, for charity is spiritual and by means of it faith is. Therefore faith without charity
is a merely natural faith, and this faith is a dead faith. It also conjoins itself with the merely natural affection that is nothing else but lust.' The angels were speaking about these things spiritually, and spiritual speech embraces thousands of things that natural speech cannot express, and what is astonishing, that cannot at all fall into the ideas of natural thought. Please remember this, and when you come out of natural light into spiritual light, which is effected after death, ask then what faith is and what charity is, and you will clearly see that faith is charity in form and therefore that charity is everything of faith, consequently that it is the soul, life and essence of faith, precisely as affection is of thought and as sound is of speech. And if you desire it, you will come to see the formation of faith from charity like the formation of speech out of sound, because they correspond. After the angels had spoken of all these things (haec et illa) they departed, and as they retired each to his own heaven stars appeared around their heads, and when they had gone from me to a distance they were seen again in the chariots as before.
 After these two angels had gone out of my sight I saw on the right a certain garden where there were olive trees, vines, fig trees, laurels and palm trees planted in order according to correspondence. I had a look at it, and among the trees I saw angels and spirits walking and talking. And then one of them, an angelic spirit, looked back at me. They are called angelic spirits who are being prepared for heaven in the world of spirits and afterwards become angels. That spirit came to me from the garden and said, 'Will you go with me into our paradise, and you shall hear and see wonderful things?' And I went with him, and then he said to me, 'Those whom you see (for there were many) are all in the affection of truth and consequently in the light of wisdom. Here also is the building that we call THE TEMPLE OF WISDOM; but no one who thinks himself to be very wise sees it, even less any one who thinks himself wise enough, and still less one who thinks that he is wise from himself. This is because such persons are not in the reception of the light of heaven out of the affection of genuine wisdom. It is genuine wisdom for a man to see out of the light of heaven that the things that he knows, understands and is wise in are so little in respect to what he does not know, understand and have wisdom in as a drop to the ocean, consequently scarcely anything. Everyone who is in this paradisial garden and by virtue of a perception and sight in himself acknowledges that he is comparatively so little wise sees that temple of wisdom, for interior light enables him to see it, but not exterior light without that.'
 And because I have often thought, and as the result of knowledge and then of perception and at length of sight out of interior light have acknowledged, that a man is so little wise, behold, it was given me to see that temple. Its form it was wonderful. It was raised above the ground, quadrangular, with walls of crystal, the roof of transparent jasper elegantly arched, and a foundation of various precious stones. The steps leading up to it were of polished alabaster. At the sides of the steps as it were lions with their whelps were visible. And then I asked whether it was allowed to enter, and it was said that it was. I therefore went up and when I entered saw as it were cherubs flying under the roof but presently vanishing. The floor on which one walked was of cedar, and by reason of the transparency of the roof and walls the whole temple was almost the form of light.
 The angelic spirit entered with me and I told him what I heard from the two angels concerning love and wisdom, as also concerning charity and faith. And he said then, 'Did they not also speak of a third?' 'What third?' I said. He replied, 'It is USE. Love and wisdom without use are not anything. They are only ideal entities, and they do not become real before they are in use. For there are love, wisdom and use, the three of them, which cannot be separated. If they are separated, none of them is anything. Love is not anything without wisdom, but in wisdom it is formed for something. This something for which it is formed is use, and therefore when love by means of wisdom is in use then it is something, in fact it then first comes into existence. They are altogether as end, cause and effect. An end is not anything unless by means of a cause it is in an effect. If one is loosed out of those three, then everything is loosed and it comes to naught.
 It is similar with charity, faith and works. Charity without faith is not anything, neither is faith without charity, nor charity and faith without deeds; but in deeds they become something, the quality of which is determined by the use of the deeds. It is similar with affection, thought and operation; and it is similar with will, understanding and action. That it is so can be clearly seen in this temple, because the light in which we are here is a light enlightening the interior things of the mind. Geometry also teaches that there is not given a complete and perfect thing unless it is a trine; for a line is not anything unless it becomes an area, nor is an area anything unless it becomes a body, and therefore the one must be directed into the other that they may have existence, and they exist together in the third. Just as it is in this instance, so also it is in all created things collectively and separately, which are fixed in their third. It is in consequence of this now that THREE in the Word spiritually understood signifies complete and altogether. This being the case I have not been able to avoid marvelling that some profess faith alone, some charity alone, and some works alone; when yet the first without the second, and the first and second together without the third, is not anything.'
 But then I asked, 'Cannot a man have charity and faith and still not have deeds? Cannot a man be in affection and thought concerning some matter and yet not be in the performance of it?' The angelic spirit said to me, 'He cannot except only ideally but not really. He must still be in the endeavour or will to perform, and the will or endeavour is action in itself, because there is a continuous striving for action, and when determination is present it becomes an outward act. Effort and will as an inward act is therefore accepted by every wise man, because it is accepted by God, altogether as an outward act, provided it does not fail when the opportunity is given.'
 After this I went down the steps out of the temple of wisdom and walked in the garden, and I saw some [spirits] sitting under a certain laurel eating figs. I turned aside to them and asked them for figs, and they gave me some. And behold, the figs became grapes in my hand. When I marvelled at this the angelic spirit who was still with me, said to me, 'The figs have become grapes in your hand because by correspondence figs signify the goods of charity and of faith therefrom in the natural or external man, but grapes signify the goods of charity and faith in the spiritual or internal man; and because you love spiritual things it has therefore so happened to you. For in our world all things are produced and come into existence and also are changed in accordance with correspondences.' And then there came over me the desire to know how a man can do good from God and yet as from himself and I therefore inquired of the fig-eaters how they comprehended this. They said that they could not comprehend it otherwise than that 'God operates it inwardly in the man, and through the man when he does not know it; since if the man should be conscious of it and thus do it as from himself, which is also to do it from himself, he would not do good but evil. For everything that proceeds from the man so as to be from himself proceeds from his proprium, and the man's proprium is evil from birth. How then can the good from God and the evil from the man be conjoined and proceed thus conjointly into act?
A man's proprium also in matters of salvation continually breathes merit and in so far as it does this it detracts from the Lord His merit, which is the height of injustice and impiety. In a word, if the good that God operates in a man by means of the Holy Spirit should inflow into the man's willing and consequent doing, that good would be entirely defiled and also profaned; which, however, God never permits. A man can indeed think that the good that he does is from God and call it the good of God [done] through himself and as from himself, but still we do not comprehend this.'  But then I opened my mind and said, 'You do not comprehend because you are thinking from an appearance, and thought from a confirmed appearance is a fallacy. An appearance and the consequent fallacy is with you because you believe that all the things that a man wills and thinks and thence does and speaks are in him, and consequently derived from himself, when yet there is in him nothing of them except the state of receiving what inflows. A man is not life in himself but is an organ receiving life. The Lord Only is Life in Himself as He Himself says in John:-
Just as the Father has Life in Himself, so also does He give to the Son to have Life in Himself John v 26; besides elsewhere, as John xi 25; xiv 6, 19.
 There are two things that make life, love and wisdom, or what is the same, the good of love and the truth of wisdom. These inflow from God and are received by a man and are felt in the man as if in him, and because they are felt by the man as if in him they also proceed as if from him. Their being so felt by the man has been given by the Lord so that what inflows affects him and thus is received and remains. But because all evil also inflows, not from God but from hell, and this is received with delight because the man has been born such an organ, therefore no more of good is received from God than the amount of evil removed by the man as if by himself. This is done by repentance and at the same time by faith in the Lord.
 That love and wisdom, charity and faith, or speaking more generally, the good of love and charity and the truth of wisdom and faith, inflow, and that the things that inflow appear in the man as if in him and consequently as if from him, can be clearly seen from sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. All the things that are felt in the organs of those senses inflow from without and are felt in them. It is similar in the organs of the internal senses, the only difference being that into the latter inflow spiritual things that are not visible, but into the former natural things inflow that are visible. In a word, the man is an organ recipient of life from God. Consequently he is a recipient of good to the extent that he desists from evil. The Lord gives to every man the ability to desist from evil because He gives him to will and understand as if from himself; and whatever the man does out of the will as his own in accordance with the understanding as his own or, what is the same, whatever he does out of the freedom that is of the will in accordance with the reason that is of the understanding, this remains. By this means the Lord leads the man into a state of conjunction with Himself and in it reforms, regenerates and saves him.
 The life that inflows is the life proceeding from the Lord, which is also called the Spirit of God, the Holy Spirit in the Word, of which it is said also that it enlightens and enlivens, indeed that it operates in the man. This life, however, is varied and modified in accordance with the organization induced on the man by his love and point of view (aspectus). That all the good of love and charity and all the truth of wisdom and faith inflow, and are not in the man, you can know also from the fact that he who thinks that such [good and truth] is inherent in the man from creation cannot think otherwise than that God has infused Himself into the man, and thus that men would in part be gods. Nevertheless those who think this from faith become devils and stink like corpses.
 Besides, what is a man's action if it is not the mind (mens) acting, for that which the mind wills and thinks, it performs by means of its organ the body; and therefore when the mind is led by the Lord the action is also led, and the mind and the action therefrom are led by the Lord when it believes in Him. Unless it were so, say if you can why the Lord in thousands and thousands of places in the Word has commanded that a man must love his neighbour, carry out the good works of charity, bear fruit like a tree and keep the commandments, and all this in order to be saved. Also why He has said that a man will be judged according to his deeds or works, he who has done good deeds to heaven and life and he who has done evil deeds to hell and death. How could the Lord have spoken such things if everything that proceeds from a man were merit-seeking and therefore evil? Know therefore that if a mind is charity the action also is charity, but if a mind is faith alone, which also is faith separated from spiritual charity, the action also is that faith, and such faith is merit-seeking because its charity is natural and not spiritual. It is otherwise with the faith of charity, because charity does not want to have merit, an d consequently neither does its faith.'
 Having heard these things those sitting under the laurel said, 'We comprehend that you have spoken justly, but still we do not comprehend.' To which I replied, 'That I have spoken justly, you comprehend from the common perception that a man has from the light out of heaven when he hears anything true, but you do not comprehend from the personal perception (ex propria perceptione) that a man has from the light of the world. Those two perceptions, namely internal and external, or spiritual and natural, make one with the wise. You also can make them one if you look to the Lord and put away evils.' Because they understood these things also I selected some boughs from the laurel under which we sat and held them out and said, 'Do you believe that this is from me or from the Lord?' And they said that they believed it to be 'by means of me as if from me'. And behold, those boughs in their hands were beginning to blossom forth. But when I departed I saw a table of cedar-wood with a book on it, under a greets olive-tree around the trunk of which a vine was entwined. I looked, and behold it was the book written by means of me called ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM, and also concerning DIVINE PROVIDENCE; and I said that in that book it has been fully shown that a mats is an organ recipient of life, and is not life.
 After these occurrences I went away home out of the garden exhilarated, and the angelic spirit was with me. On the way he said to me, 'You want to see clearly what faith is, and charity, and what faith separated from charity is, and what faith conjoined to charity, and I will show this before your very eye'. I replied, 'Do so.' And he said, 'Instead of faith and charity, think of light and heat, and you will see clearly; for faith in its essence is the truth (veritas) that is of wisdom, and charity in its essence is the affection that is of love, and the truth (veritas) of wisdom in heaven is light and the affection of love in heaven is heat. The light and heat in which the angels are nothing else. By reason of this you can clearly see what faith separated from charity is, and what faith conjoined with charity is. Faith separated from charity is like a winter light, whereas faith conjoined to charity is like the light in spring. The light in winter, which is a light separated from heat, for it is conjoined to cold, strips the trees quite bare of leaves, hardens the land and kills off the grass, and also freezes the waters. But the light in spring, which is a light conjoined to heat, makes the trees grow, first into leaves, then into flowers and at length into fruits. It opens and softens the land that it may produce grasses, herbage, flowers and fruits, and also melts the ice so that waters may flow out of springs.
 It is entirely similar with faith and charity. Faith separated from charity deadens all things and faith conjoined to charity enlivens all things. The enlivening and the deadening can be seen in living reality in our spiritual world, because here faith is light and charity is heat. For where there is faith conjoined to charity there are paradisial gardens, flower beds and lawns in their own pleasantness in accordance with the conjunction. But where there is faith separated from charity there is not even grass, and where it is green it is from thorns, brambles and nettles. The heat and light proceeding from the Lord as the Sun effect this in angels and spirits, and consequently outside of them.' There were then not far from us some of the clergy, whom the angelic spirit called justifiers and sanctifiers of men by faith alone, and also arcanists. We said these same things to them and gave a demonstration of them until they could see that it was so. And when we asked whether it was not so, they turned away and said, 'We did not hear.' But we shouted to them, saying, 'Hear this time, then!' Then putting both hands over their ears they yelled, 'We are not willing to hear.'
4652. CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE GRAND MAN, WHICH IS HEAVEN - continued IN THIS SECTION THE CORRESPONDENCE OF HEARING AND OF THE EARS WITH HEAVEN
The nature of the correspondence that exists between the soul and the body - that is, between the things constituting a person's inward spirit and those constituting his outward body - may be clearly recognized from the correspondence, influx, and communication of thought and discernment, which are functions of the spirit, with speech and hearing, which are functions of the body. When a person is speaking, his thought is nothing else than the power of speech which his spirit possesses, while his discernment of speech is nothing else than the power of hearing which his spirit possesses. When a person speaks, his thought does not, it is true, present itself to him as speech because it links itself to and is present within the power of speech that his body possesses. And when he hears something his discernment of it seems to him to be simply a hearing within his ear. For this reason the majority of people who have not stopped to reflect on the matter do not know that all five senses are located somewhere else than within organs belonging to the body; so they think that when these organs cease to function through death no sensory perception remains, when in actual fact a person, that is, his spirit, then passes into a life of perfect sensory perception.
 The fact that it is the spirit which has the powers of speech and hearing has become quite clear to me from my conversations with spirits. Their speech was communicated to my spirit; it entered my own interior power of speech, and from there into the organs corresponding to it. What they communicated ended as an endeavour in me, which I have perceived clearly on several occasions. Consequently I have heard what they said in tones as clear as anything spoken by someone on earth. Sometimes spirits have spoken to me while I was among a group of people, and some of those spirits have imagined that, because I could hear so clearly what they - the spirits - said, those people present with me could hear them too. But I have told them that their speech was flowing into my ear by the internal route, whereas human speech comes in by the external route. From this one may see how a spirit spoke to one of the prophets - not as a man speaks to another man but as a spirit speaks to a man, that is to say, within him - as in Zech. 1:9, 13, 19; 2:3; 4:1, 4, 5; 5:5, 10; 6:4; and elsewhere. But I realize that these matters are unintelligible to people who do not believe that man is a spirit, the body serving him solely for functions to be performed in the world. Those who have become quite convinced that man is not a spirit refuse even to listen to talk about any kind of correspondence; and if they do listen they reject what they hear because they have a negative attitude Indeed they are unhappy if anything is said not to belong to the body.
455. And peoples, and tongues.- That this signifies all those who are in falsities from ignorance and from various religions, is evident from the signification of peoples, as denoting those who are in truths of doctrine, and in the opposite sense, those who are in falsities of doctrine, concerning which see above (n. 175); but in the present case, those who are in falsities of doctrine from ignorance; here those who are saved, although they have been in falsities from the doctrine of their religion, are treated of; for all those are saved who are in the good of life according to the tenets of their religion, which they have believed to be truths, although they are not truths, since falsity is not imputed to any one who lives well according to the tenets of his religion, because it is no fault of his that he does not know truths; for the good of life according to religion contains within itself the affection of knowing truths, and these such persons also learn and receive when they come into another life, because every affection remains with man after death, and especially the affection of knowing truths, since this is a spiritual affection; and a man, when he becomes a spirit, is his own affection, and therefore, the truths which they desire they then drink in, and thus they receive them deeply into their hearts; (That the falsities of religion, if a man lives well, are accepted by the Lord as truths, may be seen above, n. 452); and from the signification of tongues, which denote their confessions from religion, for by tongues are meant speech, and speech signifies confession and religion, because the tongue utters and confesses those things that belong to religion.
 In the Word, the lip, mouth, and tongue are frequently mentioned; and the lip signifies doctrine, the mouth thought, and the tongue confession. The reason of these significations is that the lip, the mouth, and the tongue, are the external organs of man, by which internal things are made manifest, and internal things are those signified in the internal or spiritual sense. For the Word in the letter consists of exterior things, which appear before the eyes, and are perceived by the senses; for this reason the Word in the letter is natural, and this is the case in order that the Divine Truth which it contains may be there in its ultimate, and so in its fulness; but those external natural things, comprehend in themselves internal spiritual things, which are therefore the things signified.
 That tongues signify confessions from religion, and according to the tenets of religion, is evident from the following passages.
"The time will come for gathering together all nations and tongues, that they may come and see my glory (lxvi. 18).
This is said of the coming of the Lord. Nations and tongues signify all who are in the good of life according to their religions; tongues signify religions from confession; therefore it is said, "That they may come and see my glory," glory signifying Divine Truth, by which the church exists.
 In Daniel:
"Behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of the heavens; and there was given him dominion and glory, and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and tongues, should serve him" (vii. 13, 14).
That the Son of man, who was to come in the clouds of heaven, means the Lord, is evident. The clouds of the heavens mean the Word in the letter, in which it is said that the Lord will come, because the Word treats of Him, and in its inmost sense of Him alone. For this reason it is said "the Son of man," for the Lord is called "the Son of man" from Divine Truth, which is the Word. But more may be seen above (n. 36) upon this subject, where the following words in the Apocalypse are explained: Behold he cometh with clouds, and every eye shall see him (i. 7). The Lord's power from Divine Good is meant by dominion, and from Divine Truth, by glory, while heaven and the church are meant by a kingdom. People, tongues, and nations, signify all those who are in doctrine and in a life according to their religion. Those who are in doctrine are called peoples; those who are in life, nations; while tongues denote religions.
 In Zechariah:
"In those days ten men out of all tongues of the nations, shall take hold of the skirt of a man that is a Jew, saying, We will go with you, for we have heard that God is with you" (viii. 23).
The spiritual sense of these words may be seen above (n. 433:26). A Jew means those who are in love to the Lord and in truths of doctrine from Him; and by all tongues of the nations are meant those who are of various religions.
 Similar things are signified by tongues in the following passages.
"From these were dispersed the isles of the nations in their lands, every one according to his tongue, according to their families, in their nations." The habitations of the sons "of Shem, according to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands, according to their nations" (Gen. x. 5, 31).
In the Apocalypse:
"Thou must prophesy again over peoples, and nations, and tongues, and many kings" (x. 11).
"And from among the peoples, and kindreds, and tongues, and nations, shall they see their dead bodies three days and a half" (xi. 9).
"And it was given unto "the beast" to make war with the saints, and to overcome them; and power was given him over every tribe, and tongue, and nation" (xiii. 7).
"I saw an angel flying in the midst of heaven, having the eternal gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and tribe, and tongue, and people" (xiv. 6).
"The waters which thou sawest, where the harlot sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues" (xvii. 15).
Waters here signify the truths of the Word, for waters in the Word denote truths, and, in the opposite sense, falsities. Therefore, by peoples, multitudes, nations, and tongues, are here meant those who are in truths falsified, which in themselves are falsities, and thence in evils of life.
 So in Luke:
The rich man said to Abraham, "Have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue, for I am tormented in this flame (xvi. 24).
In this parable, as well as in the rest, the Lord spoke by correspondences, as is evident from this, that the rich man does not mean the rich, neither does Abraham mean Abraham. The water with which Lazarus might cool the rich man's tongue does not mean water, and neither does "tongue" mean the tongue, nor does "flame" mean flame, for in hell no one is tormented by flames. But by the rich man are meant those who are of the church where the Word is, out of which they have spiritual riches, which are truths of doctrine. Therefore by the rich man are there meant the Jews, who were then in possession of the Word; by Abraham is meant the Lord; by the water into which Lazarus might dip the tip of his finger, is signified truth from the Word; by the tongue, thirst and eager desire to pervert the truths of the Word; and by flame, the various and manifold punishment of that eager desire. Hence the signification of those words in a series is evident; and that by cooling the tongue with water is signified to allay the thirst and eager desire to pervert truths, and by means of them to confirm falsities. Who cannot see that it is not meant that Lazarus should dip the tip of his finger in water to cool the tongue?
 Again in Zechariah:
"This shall be the plague wherewith Jehovah will smite all the peoples that shall fight against Jerusalem; the flesh of every one shall consume away while he stands upon his feet, and his eyes shall consume away in their sockets, and his tongue shall consume away in his mouth" (xiv. 12).
These things are spoken of those who endeavour to destroy the truths of doctrine by falsities; this is signified by fighting against Jerusalem, for Jerusalem signifies the church as to doctrine, and thence the truths of the doctrine of the church. By the flesh consuming away is signified that all the good of love and of life would perish, for this is signified by flesh. By standing upon their feet, is meant upon bones without flesh, which signifies that they would become altogether corporeal-natural, for the feet signify those things which pertain to the natural man, and in the present case, its lowest things. By their eyes consuming away in their sockets, is signified that all the understanding of truth would perish, for the eyes signify the understanding. By his tongue consuming away in the mouth is signified that all perception of truth and affection for good would perish. The tongue also signifies perception of truth and affection for good; perception of truth from the fact that it speaks, and affection for good, from the fact that it tastes, for taste signifies appetite, desire, and affection.
 In the book of Judges:
"Jehovah said unto Gideon, Every one that lappeth of the waters with his tongue as a dog lappeth, him shalt thou set by himself; likewise every one that boweth down upon his knees to drink. And the number of them that lapped in their hand, was three hundred men. These were led against Midian, and smote him" (vii. 5-7).
By Midian are here meant those who care nothing for truth, because they are merely natural and external, therefore they were smitten by those who lapped water in their hand with their tongue like a dog; for by these are meant those who desire truths, that is those who from some natural affection have a desire to know truths, for a dog signifies appetite and desire, waters signify truths, and lapping them with the tongue signifies to long for, and to be affected with desire; Midian was therefore smitten by these. Who cannot see that this would not have been commanded unless it had been significative?
 In David:
"Thou hidest them in the secret of thy faces from the pride of man: thou concealest them in a tabernacle from the strife of tongues" (Psalm xxxi. 20).
Here the secret of the faces in which Jehovah hides them, signifies the Divine Good of the Divine Love, for the "faces of Jehovah" signifies the good of love and secret signifies interiorly in man. The pride of man signifies the pride of his own intelligence; the tabernacle in which He concealed them signifies Divine Truth; and the strife of tongues signifies the falsity of religion, from which they reason against truths. Hence it is evident what these words signify in a series.
 In Jeremiah:
"Lo, I will bring a nation upon you, a nation whose tongue thou shalt not know, nor understand what they say; they shall eat up thine harvest, and thy bread" (v. 15-17).
It is not meant by these words that a nation of an unknown tongue, or of an unintelligible speech, should be brought; but an evil nation of an altogether different religion is meant, whose dogmas they would not know, nor would understand the reasonings based on them. In the abstract sense the falsities of evil are signified, which are altogether opposite to the truths of good; for nation, in the abstract sense, denotes evil, and tongue in this case the falsity of religion, and to speak denotes to reason therefrom, therefore the words follow, "they shall eat up thine harvest, and thy bread." For by harvest are signified truths by means of which there is good, by bread is signified the good thence, and eating up signifies to consume and take away.
 In Ezekiel:
"For thou art not sent to a people deep of lip, and heavy of tongue; unto the house of Israel: not to great peoples deep of lip and heavy of tongue whose words thou hast not understood: had I sent thee to them, would they not have obeyed thee?" (iii. 5, 6).
A people deep of lip and heavy of tongue, whose words cannot be understood, signifies those who are in unintelligible doctrine, and thence in an abstruse religion, whose dogmas cannot be apprehended. Lip signifies doctrine, tongue religion, and words the dogmas thereof. Wherefore by these people are meant the Gentiles who do not possess the Word, from which Jehovah, that is, the Lord, is known. That they would receive Divine truths if instructed, is signified by their obeying, if he had been sent unto them.
 In Isaiah:
"Thou shalt not see an obdurate people, a people of depths of lip that thou understandest not, barbarous in tongue [in which there is] no intelligence" (xxxiii. 19).
By a people of depths of lip and by barbarous in tongue are signified similar things to those meant by peoples of a deep lip and heavy of tongue mentioned above. It is evident that a people whose speech is unintelligible is not meant, for it is also said, and barbarous in tongue [in which there is] no intelligence, for there may be intelligence in the tongue or speech, but not in their religion.
"I have sworn, That unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear" (xlv. 23).
The subject here is the coming of the Lord, and by every knee shall bow, is signified that all those who are in natural from spiritual good shall worship Him, the knee signifying the conjunction of natural good with spiritual. Hence it is evident that bending the knees signifies acknowledgment, thanksgiving, and adoration from spiritual good and delight in the Natural. Every tongue shall swear, signifies that all will confess Him who are in good from religion; to swear denotes to confess, and the tongue denotes the religion according to which they live.
 In David:
"My tongue shall speak of thy justice all the day, and of thy praise" (Psalm xxxv. 28).
Here also the tongue signifies confession from the doctrine of the church, for it is said that it speaks; justice is stated of the good, and praise of the truth thereof, as in other parts of the Word.
"My tongue also shall speak of thy justice all the day long" (Psalm lxxi. 24).
 In the same:
"Let" the wicked "beset me with gall; the mischief of their lips covers them; burning coals overwhelm them. Let them be cast into deep pits by fire that they rise not again. A man of tongue shall not be established in the earth" (Psalm cxl. 9-11).
Gall signifies truth falsified, which in itself is falsity; the mischief of their lips signifies the falsity of doctrine thence, for lips signify doctrine. By burning coals overwhelming them, and by the fire by which they are to be cast into deep pits are signified pride on account of their own intelligence, and the love of self through which they fall into absolute falsities; burning coals signify the pride of one's own intelligence; fire, the love of self; and pits, falsities. All falsities of doctrine in the church, and all falsifications of the Word, exist also from the pride of man's own intelligence, and from the love of self. It is evident, therefore, that a man of tongue shall not be established in the earth, signifies a false religion.
"I lie down, my soul in the midst of lions; the sons of men are inflamed; their teeth are spears and darts, and their tongue is a sharp sword" (Psalm lvii. 4).
Lions signify those who plunder the church of truths, and thus destroy it; the sons of men who are inflamed signify those who are in the truths of the church, and in the abstract, the truths themselves, which are said to be inflamed by the pride of man's own intelligence, whence arise falsities. Their teeth are spears and darts, signifies reasonings from external sensuals, and thus from the fallacies and falsities of religion, by which truths are destroyed, the teeth signifying the ultimates of the life of man, which are external sensual things, and in the present case reasonings from them. The tongue signifies the falsities of religion, wherefore it is said, "their tongue is a sharp sword," for by a sword is signified the destruction of truth by falsities.
 So in Job:
"Wilt thou draw out leviathan with a book? and press down his tongue with a rope?" (xli. 1).
In this and the preceding chapter, the behemoth and the leviathan are spoken of, and each signifies the natural man. The behemoth signifies the natural man in regard to goods, which are called the delights of natural love; and the leviathan, the natural man in regard to truths, which are called scientifics and knowledges, from which there is natural light (lumen). Both of these are described by pure correspondences, in the ancient style of writing. That reasoning by means of scientifics (scientifica) from the light of nature cannot be restrained except by God, is described in this and the following chapter by the leviathan, and also by these words, "Wilt thou draw out leviathan with a hook? or press down his tongue with a rope?" The tongue signifies reasoning from scientifics. That the leviathan signifies the natural man in regard to scientifics, is evident from other passages, where it is named, as in Isaiah xxvii. 1; Psalm lxxiv. 14; Psalm civ. 26, and also from the fact that the sea-monster, which is meant by the leviathan, signifies the natural man as to scientifics.
 Again, in Isaiah:
"The heart also of the rash shall understand knowledge, and the tongue of the stammerers shall be swift to speak" (xxxii. 4).
The rash mean those who readily seize upon and believe whatever is said, and therefore falsities also. Of these it is said, that they shall understand and know, which means to receive truths. The stammerers mean those who are able to apprehend the truths of the church only with difficulty; their tongue shall be swift to speak means, that they shall confess them from affection; swift," is said of affection.
 In the same prophet:
"Then shall the lame man leap as a hart, and the tongue of the dumb sing; for in the desert shall waters break out, and rivers in the plain of the desert" (xxxv. 6).
These things are said concerning the coming of the Lord. The lame signify those who are in good, but not in genuine good, because in ignorance of truth, by means of which good exists; to leap as a hart signifies to have joy from perception of truth. The dumb signify those who cannot confess the Lord, nor the genuine truths of the church, because of their ignorance of truth; by their singing is signified joy from the understanding of truth. By waters breaking out in the desert is signified that truths shall be made known where they did not exist before; and rivers in the plain of the desert signify intelligence there, for waters signify truths, and rivers, intelligence.
 From these explanations it is evident what is signified in the spiritual sense by the deaf man, who had an impediment in his speech, and whom the Lord healed as recorded in Mark.
Jesus took the deaf man that had an impediment in his speech, "and put his finger into his ears, and he spat, and touched his tongue; and looking up to heaven, he saith unto him, Ephphatha, that is, Be opened; and straightway his ears were opened, and the string of his tongue was loosed, and he spake plainly" (Mark vii. 32, 33-35).
That all the miracles of the Lord, because they were Divine, involved and signified those things that pertain to heaven and the church; and that therefore the healings of diseases signified the various healings of the spiritual life, may be seen in the Arcana Coelestia (n. 7337, 8364, 9031). The deaf man signifies those who are not in the understanding of truth, and therefore not in obedience. By an impediment in his speech are signified those who confess the Lord and the truth of the church with difficulty; the opening of his ears by the Lord signifies obedience and the perception of truth; and by the tongue, whose string was loosed by the Lord, is signified the confession of the Lord, and of the truths of the church.
 By the apostles and others speaking with new tongues after the resurrection of the Lord, was also signified the confession of the Lord, and of the truths of the new church; concerning this it is thus written in Mark:
Jesus said, "And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues" (xvi. 17).
The casting out of devils, means the removal and rejection of the falsities of evil, and speaking with new tongues, confession of the Lord and the truths of the church from Him. Therefore to the apostles "there appeared cloven tongues like as of fire, which sat upon them. And then they were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and began to speak with other tongues" (ii. 3, 4). By the fire was signified the love of truth; by being filled with the Holy Spirit, was signified the reception of Divine Truth from the Lord; and by new tongues are meant confessions from the love of truth or from zeal. For, as said above, all Divine miracles, therefore all the miracles recorded in the Word, involved and signified spiritual and celestial things, that is to say, such things as pertain to heaven and the church, for this distinguishes Divine miracles from miracles not Divine. It would be superfluous to adduce more passages from the Word to prove that tongues do not mean speech in the ordinary meaning of the word, but confessions from the truths of the church, and, in the opposite sense, confessions from the falsities of religion.
Heaven and Hell
244. In heaven, as has been said above, all have one speech; but it is varied in this respect, that the speech of the wise is more interior and more full of variations of affections and ideas of thought, while the speech of the less wise is more exterior and lacking in such fullness, and the speech of the simple is still more exterior, consisting of words from which the meaning is to be gathered in the same way as when men are, talking with one another. There is also speech by the face, terminating in something sonorous modified by ideas. Again, there is speech in which heavenly representatives are mingled with ideas, and go forth from ideas to sight. There is also speech by gestures that correspond to affections, and represent things like those expressed by their words. There is speech by means of the general things of affections and the general things of thoughts. There is speech like thunder, besides other kinds.
Spiritual Experiences Minor
4647. CONCERNING THE MARVELOUS SPEECH OF SPIRITS.
The speech of spirits is related to the speech of men, as sight to hearing; and it excels it even more [than this]. It beholds things themselves: from them, [spirits] produce marvelous and inexpressible forms. He who is not aware, would affirm that forms are not produced from things themselves, save from visible objects; but still they are produced. These forms contain very many things - in their midst [the spirit] determines something visible; within, and round about, something invisible, which is, yet, perceived by interior vision - which things cannot be told in words. In a moment, more things are presented than can be described in an hour; and, even then, not as much as the half would be expressible. This is the speech of spirits. The speech of spiritual angels is still more perfect, being comparatively [to it] as the speech of spirits is to human speech. The speech of celestial angels is more perfect still; in so great a degree is it more excellent. They do not learn this speech; but it is given to them, and is in them without their learning it. Every man who becomes a spirit has it in himself; likewise, every spirit who becomes an angel.
8249. I have been informed by the angels that the first speech of all in every earth was a speech by means of the face, and this from two origins in the face-from the lips, and from the eyes. The reason why such speech was the first, is that the face was formed just to effigy the things which a man thinks and which he wills; from this the face has also been called the effigy and index of the mind; and also because in the most ancient or first times there was sincerity (see n. 8118), and man thought nothing, and wished to think nothing, but what he was willing should shine forth from his face; so that the affections of the lower mind and the ideas of the thought could be presented to the life, and fully. In this way they appeared to the eye also, as in a form, and very many together. This speech therefore surpassed the speech of words as much as the sense of sight surpasses that of hearing; that is, as the sight of a country surpasses hearing a description of it. They added that such speech was in agreement with the speech of the angels, with whom, furthermore, men in those times had communication. Moreover when the face speaks, or the mind through the face, it is the angelic speech with man in an ultimate natural form; and there is a presence of the internal sight or thought of one in that of another, but not when the mouth speaks by means of words. (That the most ancient people on this earth spoke in a similar way, see n. 607, 608, 1118, 1120, 7361.) Everyone also can know that the speech of words was not possible to the most ancient people, because the words of language were not imparted immediately, but had to be invented and applied to the things, which could not be done except in course of time.
6996. 'Send, I beg You, through the hand [of another] You may send' means that Divine Truth going forth from the Divine Human will be uttered in an indirect way. This is clear from the representation of Moses, who says these words, as the Lord in respect of the Word, that is, of Divine Truth, dealt with in 6752; from the meaning of 'sending', when used in reference to the Lord, as going forth, dealt with in 2397, 4710; and from the meaning of 'sending through the hand' as through another to whom power will be given, power to utter Divine Truth going forth from the Lord's Divine Human. And since it comes through another to whom power has been given it comes in an indirect way. It was shown above in 6982, 6985, that Divine Truth going forth directly from the Lord's Divine Human cannot be heard or discerned by anyone, not even by an angel. If therefore it is to be heard and discerned an intermediary is required; heaven acts as that intermediary, and then the angels and spirits present with a person.
 This is plainly recognizable from the consideration that a person does not even hear the spirits who are present with him talking to one another; and if he did he would not discern what they said because spirits' speech does not contain any words used by men but is the universal speech of all languages. What is more, spirits cannot hear angels, and if they did they would not discern what they said, for angels' speech is even more universal. Still less can angels belonging to the inmost heaven be heard or understood, because their speech is not speech consisting of ideas but of the affections immanent in heavenly love. Since these kinds of speech are so remote from a person that he cannot by any means hear or discern them, then how remote must Divine speech be - if one may use that expression - which is infinitely superior to the kinds of speech in the heavens? (The expression 'Divine speech' is being used, but by it Divine Truth going forth from the Lord's Divine Human is meant.) This being so, it may be seen that if Divine Truth going forth from the Lord is to be heard and discerned, it must come to man by way of intermediaries, the final one being a spirit present with a person, whose entrance takes place either into the person's thought or by means of a living voice.
 The fact that Divine Truth coming forth directly from the Lord cannot be heard or discerned is also evident from correspondences and from the representatives based on them. That is to say, the things that man says present themselves among spirits in an altogether different form, and the things spirits say present themselves among angels in an altogether different form, as may be recognized from the spiritual sense of the Word and the literal sense of it; the literal sense, which is suitable for man, serves to denote and represent things contained in the spiritual sense. Since this sense cannot be perceived by man - still less the angelic sense - except insofar as it is able to be presented and revealed by means of such things as belong to the world and natural order, how can he discern Divine Truth coming directly from the Lord's Divine? That Truth is infinitely higher than angels' level of understanding and cannot be perceived in heaven either, except insofar as it passes through heaven and in so doing takes on a form suitable for and compatible with the perception of those who are there. This is accomplished by means of an influx that is marvellous and beyond all possible comprehension by anyone. These matters have been stated in order that people may know that Divine Truth going forth from the Lord cannot be heard or discerned by anyone without intermediaries.
5590. The speech of spirits with man falls into the man's words; and, then, a spirit is in the like speech with the man, of whatsoever nation he may be: it also [falls] into the foreign languages which are with the man. Such spirit is, at the time, unaware that there is any other speech, or that he is a spiritual [being] among spirits. Similar is the influx of the speech of spirits into man as [the speech] of the man in himself. He is a man-spirit; and his speech inflows from his spirit into the natural* speech of man; and man is then unaware of the quality of [his] spirit, or that there is in him another speech than the language of earth. And when he is neither speaking, nor thinking that [his] speech belongs to [his] words, he is unaware of the fact: in like manner the spirits who are with a man. The case is precisely similar. Make the comparison.
5592. There exists, besides, a speech through accompanying ideas, and also without accompanying ideas. I have spoken with angels and spirits through speech accompanied by ideas, and also not accompanied by ideas. The speech through accompanying ideas is also sonorous, and exists at the same time along with words such as pertain to men in the world, and at the same time, also, along with words such as pertain to spirits and angels. And it is sonorous. But speech through ideas alone, without words, is likewise twofold; [but] both kinds are tacit, not sonorous: the one is of thought, the other of affection
5592a. When intellectual ideas of thought are present, then appear all things whatsoever that a man, or spirit, has known about the same matter; but, in the midst, and thus in the light, is the matter which is then the subject; and the rest are round about at a distance, in shade. If the obscure things which were at a distance, are in the middle, or in the light, then the rest are at the circumference in the distance, like objects of sight when the sight is forcibly determined, strained to a certain object. The case is quite similar. It must be known, that, when a man, or spirit, speaks, all things whatsoever that he has known about the same matter are then exhibited present, in order, according to the form of heaven - in which he is if good; for the connection is similar. Wherefore, such speech diffuses itself widely, if the man, or spirit, has known much, and the things [he has known] are truths from good. Then it is towards heaven and in heaven.
5592b. But, if they are not truths and goods, then, the speech diffuses itself towards hell, and its form is different: thus, if in falses from evil, he is in the opposites. But speech from affections without intellectual ideas, is still fuller. The affection is presented with its variety, and the angels, especially the celestial, apprehend all things distinctly, according to the truths from good inscribed in them. Such speech is obscure to man, and also to spiritual [angels]. With such speech also I have often spoken; and the angels readily understood. It differs, likewise, according to the quality of the affection [resulting] from the truths. Those who are in genuine truths are able thus to speak in the celestial manner; and, then, internal holiness, which is holiness itself out of heaven, is called forth, but not external holiness without that internal. There is more of the human [element] in external holiness; but in internal, more of the Divine holiness.
EVERY MAN IS AN AFFECTION; AND THERE ARE AS MANY VARIOUS AFFECTIONS AS THERE ARE MEN THAT HAVE BEEN BORN, AND WILL BE BORN TO ETERNITY.
This can be seen especially from the angels of heaven and from the spirits of hell, all of whom are affections; the spirits of hell evil affections, which are lusts, and the angels of heaven good affections. Every man is an affection, for the reason that his life is love, and the continuations and derivations of love are what are called affections; consequently affections in themselves are loves, but subordinate to the general love as their lord or head. Since, therefore, life itself is love, it follows that each and all things of life are affections, and consequently that man himself is an affection.
 Most persons in the world will wonder that this is so, as it has been granted me to know from the testimony of all who pass from the natural world into the spiritual world. Thus far I have not found one who had known that he was an affection; few even knew what affection is; and when I said that affection is love in its continuation and derivation, they inquired what love is; saying that, they know what thought is, because they perceive it; but not what affection is, because no one perceives this. That in the nature of things there is love, they said that they knew from the love of a bride before marriage, and from a mother's love towards infants, and in some small measure from a father's love when he kisses a betrothed wife or his infant; and some in place of these said harlot.  When I said to them that thought is nothing whatever by itself, but is something by affection, which is of man's life's love, because thought is from affection, as a thing is formed by that which forms it; also that thought is perceived, and not affection, because the thing formed is perceived and not what forms it, just as the body is perceived by the bodily senses and the soul is not,-inasmuch as they were amazed at what was said to them, they were instructed in the subject by many experiments; as for example, that all things of thought are from affection and according to it; again that they could neither think without affection nor contrary to it, also that every one is such as his affection is, and therefore every one is explored from his affection, and no one from his speech; for speech proceeds from the thought belonging to external affection, which is a desire to be courteous, to please, to be praised, to be regarded as good citizens, and men of morality and wisdom, and all these things for the sake of ends belonging to internal affection, of which ends such things are means.
And yet from the sound of his speech, unless a man be a consummate hypocrite, the affection itself is heard; for vocal speech belongs to thought, but its sound belongs to affection. Wherefore they were told that as there is no speech without sound, neither can there be thought without affection; and that it is plain therefore that affection is the all of thought, as sound is the all of speech,* for speech is only the articulation of sound. By all this they were instructed that man is nothing but affection; and further, as a consequence, that all heaven is divided, and all hell, as a kingdom is, into provinces and societies, according to generic and specific differences of affections, and not at all in accordance with any differences of thoughts; also that the Lord alone has knowledge of these differences. From this it follows that there are infinite varieties and differences of affections, as many as there are men that have been born and will be born to eternity.
6084. THE SPEECH OF THE THIRD HEAVEN.
I conversed with spirits about angelic speech, and said that spiritual speech cannot be at all understood by anyone who is in a natural state; but that natural speech can be understood by spirits who are in a spiritual state, though only according to correspondences - and likewise the reverse, but, in that case, spiritual speech falls into natural. Hence it is, that man does not know anything about the spirits amongst whom he is, nor a spirit know anything about the man with whom he is.
They were told that the spiritual angels are not able to understand celestial speech, or that of the angels of the third heaven, because their speech is the speech of affections. As this occasioned surprise, an angel from that heaven spoke with them, and they did not understand anything at all; by which was established that the angels of the third heaven have a higher speech.
9407. 'There was so to speak a work of sapphire [stone]' means that it is translucent with inner truths on that level, and that all things in it are translucent from the Lord. This is clear from the meaning of 'a work of sapphire' as the character of the literal sense of the Word when the internal sense is discerned within it, that is, when Divine Truth emanating from the Lord, as it is in heaven, shines through it. For the Word is Divine Truth emanating from the Lord. In origin it is Divine, but as it passes through the heavens it is celestial in the inmost heaven, spiritual in the second or middle heaven, spiritual-natural in the first or lowest heaven, and natural and worldly in the world; this last is its character in the sense of the letter intended for people there. From this it is evident that the sense of the letter, which is the lowest in order, contains a spiritual and a celestial level of meaning, and inmostly the Divine Himself. And since these inner levels are contained in the lowest or literal sense and are seen by those who understand the Word in a spiritual manner, that sense is represented by 'a work of sapphire', which lets rays of heavenly light through, that is, which is translucent.
 To give some idea of that translucence, let human speech serve to illustrate it. Such speech has its origin in the end a person has in view which he wishes to make known through speech. This end is his love; for a person has what he loves as his end in view. From that end arises the person's thought, and finally his speech. Anyone who stops to think properly about this can see and discern the truth of it. The fact that the end is the primary component of speech is clear from the general rule that all intelligence has an end within it, and devoid of the end it is not intelligence. And everyone knows that thought is a secondary component arising from the first, for nobody can speak without thinking or think without having an end in view. The fact that spoken words ensue from this, and that these are the final component, which is properly called speech, is also well known. All this being so, when a person pays attention to what another utters he pays attention not to the words the speaker uses but to the meaning conveyed by them which is present in the speaker's thought. And one who is wise pays attention to the end in view that has given rise to the thought expressed in speech, that is, he pays attention to what the speaker's aims are and what it is he loves. These three components are present in human speech, in which the spoken words serve as the outward form.
 This comparison enables one to gain some idea regarding the Word in the letter. For those in heaven pay attention to the Word in the letter and perceive things there in exactly the same way as anyone is accustomed to perceive a person's thought as it presents itself in spoken words, or in the inmost heaven as anyone is accustomed to perceive a person's aims or end in view. But the difference is that when someone reads the sense of the letter of the Word this is not heard or understood in heaven, only the internal sense, because in heaven they perceive solely the spiritual and celestial levels of the Word, not the natural level of it. The one sense accordingly passes over into the other, for they correspond to each other and only things which have a correspondence have been used in the writing of the Word. All this shows what to understand when reference is made to the translucent nature of the Word, meant by 'a work of sapphire'.
 But a person who is unable to think on a higher level of understanding, that is, on a level altogether above material things, cannot grasp any of this, not even the idea that it is possible for a sense to exist in the Word other than the one perceived in the letter. If that person is told that the letter holds within itself a spiritual sense which has to do with truth, and that this in turn holds within itself a celestial sense which has to do with good, and also that these senses shine through the literal sense, he will be taken aback at first, then dismiss the idea as nonsense, and finally ridicule it. Actual experience has shown me that this is what people are like in the Christian world at the present day, especially the learned, and that those who reason against that truth boast of being wiser than those who uphold it. Yet the learning in earliest times, which were called golden and silver ages, had consisted in speaking and in writing in ways in which no attention was be paid to the literal meaning other than to enable hidden wisdom to shine through it, as becomes perfectly clear from the oldest books, including those by gentile authors, as well as from fragments in their languages. For their knowledge was primarily the knowledge of correspondences and the knowledge of representations, which forms of knowledge at the present day are some of those which have been lost.
10. [115.] X
THERE IS A RECIPROCAL CONJUNCTION OF LOVE AND WISDOM
That there is a reciprocal conjunction of love and wisdom, or, what is the same thing, of Will and Understanding, also of affection and thought, and similarly of good and truth, is an arcanum not hitherto revealed. Reason can detect that there is conjunction, but not that it is a reciprocal conjunction. That reason can detect that there is conjunction, is evident from the conjunction of affection and thought; for no one can think without affection; and anyone willing to investigate, will perceive that affection is the life of thought, and furthermore that such as the affection is, such is the thought; consequently if the one grows warm, the other does the same, and if the one grows cold, the other grows cold too. It is because of this that when a man is happy, he thinks happily, and when he is saddened, he thinks sadly; so also, when he is angry, he thinks angrily, and so forth. Look down from your higher thought into your lower thought, and take careful notice, and you will see.
The conjunction of love and wisdom is similar, because every affection is of the love, and every thought is of the wisdom. Similar also is the conjunction of Will and Understanding, the love being of the Will, and the wisdom being of the Understanding. Again, the conjunction of good and truth is similar, good being of love, and truth being of wisdom, as confirmed in a preceding section. Concerning this conjunction, see what is stated in DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM, NOS. 11-27.
[] [116.] That the conjunction is a reciprocal one, may also be deduced from the case of affection and thought, in that an affection produces thought, and the thought reproduces the affection. It may be deduced especially, however, from the reciprocal conjunction of the heart and the lungs, for as shown before in Sections VI and VII, there is, with human beings, correspondence in all points between the heart and the Will, and between the lungs and the Understanding; consequently, from the conjunction of heart and lungs we can derive instruction regarding the conjunction of Will and Understanding, consequently regarding the conjunction of love and wisdom. From the parallelism established between these two pairs, it can be shown that:-
(1) The life of the Will conjoins itself to the life of the Understanding.
(2) It is a reciprocal conjunction; what its nature is.
(3) The life of the Understanding purifies the life of the Will. it also perfects and exalts it.
(4) The life of the Will co-operates with the life of the Understanding in every movement; and conversely, the life of the Understanding cooperates with the life of the Will in every sensation.
(5) Similarly with vocal sound and its speech.
(6) Similarly with both the good and the wicked, except that in the case of the wicked the life of the Will is not purified, perfected and exalted by the life of the Understanding, but is befouled, corrupted and debased by it.
(7) The love that is the life of the Will, makes all man's life.
[] [117.] It should be known first, however, that by "the life of the Will" is meant love and affection, and by the "life of the Understanding" is meant wisdom, intelligence and knowledge. It should also be understood that the heart itself, together with all the blood-vessels throughout the body, corresponds to the Will, while the blood therein corresponds to the love and to its affections that are comprised, which is the life of the Will: also that the lungs, together with the trachea, the larynx, the glottis and finally the tongue, correspond to the Understanding, while the respiration, effected by the influx of air through the larynx and trachea into the bronchial tubes, corresponds to the life of the Understanding.
These things should be known in order that the truth unfolded by means of the correspondences may be rightly grasped. Now, therefore, for the parallelism.
[118.] (1) The life of the Will conjoins itself to the life of the Understanding. On the basis of the parallelism, it is clear that the life of the Will, which life is the love, flows into the Understanding and makes its inmost life: that the Understanding receives it of its own accord: and that the Will, by means of the influx of its love, first produces in the Understanding affections proper to the Will, or love, then perceptions, and finally thoughts together with ideas, in co-operation with it. That this is so, may be established from the heart's conjunction with the lungs. The heart sends the whole of its blood through its right auricle into the lungs, causing the blood-vessels in the latter to be blood-red, which makes the lungs from being white appear red. The heart sends its blood through its covering or outermost tunic, termed the pericardium, this tunic continuing to encompass the blood-vessels till they reach the innermost parts of the lungs. In this way the heart makes the life of the lungs, and gives them power, so that they can respire; respiration takes place by the influx of air into the bronchial tubes, and by their reciprocal motion, or exhaling.
 [119.] (2) It is a reciprocal conjunction; what its nature is. On the basis of the parallelism, it may be established that the Understanding sends back the life of the love received from the Will; not, however, along the same path as that by which it was received, but along another running by the side of it; and that hence the Will actuates life in the whole body. But this reciprocal conjunction may be more fully understood from the reciprocal conjunction of the heart and the lungs, on account of the similarity between them. As said above, the heart sends the blood through its right auricle into the lungs, and the lungs send back the blood they receive, into the left auricle of the heart, thus by a different path. The heart then pours it forth out of its left ventricle with great force to every part, through the aorta into the body, and through the carotid arteries into the brain; by means of these arteries and their ramifications, the heart operates active life throughout the body, for in the arteries the heart has active force. The arterial blood afterwards flows everywhere into the veins through which it flows back to the right ventricle of the heart, and out of this again, as before, to the lungs and back again into the left auricle. This circulation of the blood in everyone is continuous, because the blood corresponds to the life of the love, and the respiration to the life of the Understanding. It is clear from the above that there is a reciprocal conjunction of love and wisdom, and that the love is man's sole and essential life.
 [] [120.] (3) The life of the Understanding purifies the life of the Will. This is not only clear from their correspondence with the lungs and the heart, but also from the fact that man is born into evils from his parents and in consequence prefers corporeal and worldly things to celestial and spiritual things, the result being that his life, which is his love, is by nature perverted and unclean. Reason will enable anyone to see that this life cannot be purified except by means of a man's Understanding, and that it is purified by the truths, spiritual, moral and civil, that make the Understanding; it is on that account that man has been given the ability to perceive such things as are contrary to the love of his Will and to think them affirmatively; and not only to see that [the things he is born into] are [evils], but also, if he looks to God, to be able to resist them, and in this way remove the perverted and foul things of his Will: this is "being purified".
An illustration of this also may be seen in the removal of impurities from the blood in the lungs. It is known to anatomists that the blood sent from the heart has impurities removed there, from the fact that the quantity of blood flowing in from the heart is larger than that flowing back from the lungs into the heart: also because it flows into the lungs unprepared and full of impurities, but flows back disciplined and pure: also because in the lungs there is a cellular tissue into which the blood from the heart separates out the useless elements it contains and discharges them into the bronchial vessels and tubes, and because mucus in the throat and nostrils is partly from this source, as well as vapour from the breath. From these things it is obvious that the vitiated blood from the heart is purified in the lungs. What was stated above can be illustrated thereby, inasmuch as the heart's blood corresponds to the Will's love, which is man's life, and the respiration of the lungs corresponds to his Understanding's perception and thought, by means of which purification is effected.
[121.] That the life of the Understanding also perfects and exalts the life of the Will is because the Will's love, which makes a man's life, is purged of its evils by the agency of the Understanding, the man from being corporeal and worldly becomes spiritual and celestial, and then the truths and goods of heaven and of the Church become of his affection and nourish his soul. Thus, the life of his Will is made new, and, from that, the life of his Understanding as well: thus both are perfected and exalted. It is in the Understanding and by means of it, that this takes place, but still it is actuated from the Will, for the Will is the essential man.
Confirmation of this, too, is found in the correspondence of the lungs and the heart. The lungs, corresponding to the Understanding, not only purge the blood of its impurities, as said above, but also provide nutriment for it out of the air; for the air is full of volatile elements and odours of the same nature as the substances of the blood, and there are also, in the lobules of the bronchial tubes, innumerable networks of blood-vessels which, as their nature is, absorb what flows near. This is how the blood is made active and bright, and becomes arterial blood, which is its condition when flowing out from the lungs into the left cavity of the heart. That the atmosphere does feed the blood in the lungs with fresh aliments is clear from many facts of experience. For there are airs inhaled that are harmful to the lungs, and others that are invigorating, thus some that are destructive, and some that are health-giving. There are instances of people fasting, who have lived for a long time without terrestrial food, thus on atmospheric sustenance only. There are animal species, such as bears, vipers, chameleons, etc., who keep alive without other food. It is obvious from this that in the lungs the blood derives nutriment also from the atmosphere. So also, in accordance with the correspondence, the life of the Understanding perfects, and exalts the life of the Will.
 [122.] (4) The life of the Will co-operates with the life of the Understanding in every movement: and conversely, the life of the Understanding co-operates with the life of the Will in every sensation. It was shown above that the Will and Understanding cooperate in each and all parts of the body, just as the heart and lungs do, but it has not yet been shown that the primary part in producing movements is taken by the Will, while the primary part in setting up sensations is taken by the Understanding. That the Will plays the primary part in movements follows as a consequence from its function, that of action: for willing is that from which doing and acting are. That the Understanding plays the primary part in sensations follows also as a consequence of its function, that of perceiving, and therefore that of sensating. Yet there can be neither movement nor sensation without both Will and Understanding co-operating. This is seen, too, from the co-operation between the heart and the lungs. It is evident from the muscles that the heart plays the primary part, and the lungs a secondary one, for in them the arteries act and the membranes derived from the ligaments react: the arteries are constricted by nerves actuated from the brain, and relaxed by the little membranes arising from the ligaments leading into them; the arteries originate from the heart, whereas the ligaments, being continued from the diaphragm, peritonaeum or other source, are subject to the alternate motion of the lungs. It is obvious from this that in the case of movements, the blood from the heart plays the primary part, and the respiration of the lungs a secondary one: the respiration of the lungs plays a secondary part in the muscles through the aforesaid ligaments, which are subject to their motion; those ligaments, moreover, make the common sheathing of the muscles, and also the membranes of the motor fibres, and in this way enter into the smallest parts; by this arrangement, there are reactions, both general and particular, and particular reactions can be variously proportioned under a general one, in accordance with a principle of Nature operative in all things. It is the same with the Will and Understanding.
That in sensations, on the other hand, it is the lungs that play the primary part, and the heart a secondary one, is evident from an examination of the sensory organs, which demonstrate the truth of it. As, however, the structures of these organs are complicated, and differ from each other, this cannot be described here to the reader's apprehension; it will be sufficient to know that all the sensory organs correspond to things of the Understanding, the organ of sight to intelligence, the organ of hearing to obedience as a result of giving heed, the organ of smell to perception, the tongue to wisdom, and the touch to perception in general.
 [123.] (5) Similarly with vocal sound and its speech. It was stated above* that the formations in the Understanding effected by the love flowing from the Will are, first, affections, then perceptions, and finally thoughts: and it is well known that all the vocal sounds are from the lungs, and that there are varieties of these sounds, some deriving very little from the Understanding, some deriving more, and some deriving much. Sounds deriving little from the Understanding are the sounds in singing and music: those deriving more are the inner sounds of speech: those deriving still more are the outer sounds of speech; the speech itself, by means of articulations of sound, which are the words, gives utterance to them.
That there is a correspondence of vocal sounds and speech, with the life of the Will, which life is the love, and the life of the Understanding, which life is the wisdom, can be perceived by the hearing, the nature of the love's affection by the sound, and the nature of the Understanding's wisdom from the speech; this is perceived very clearly by angels, but obscurely by men. The correspondence of the vocal sound itself is with the love's general affection in the Understanding: the correspondence of the variations of vocal sound, such as those of song and music, is with variations of the affections in the Understanding, that are from the Will's love: the correspondence of the variations of vocal sound that derive very little from the Understanding is with perception: of those that derive more, it is with the variation of the perceptions: of those that derive much, it is with the thought and its variations: and the ideas of thought, with the words; these things in brief.
There are two lungs, each called a lobe; where the beginnings of respiration take their rise is called the bronchial tubes: the channel into which they pass is called the trachea, or windpipe: its head is called the larynx, and the opening in this for vocal sound is called the glottis: from this there is a continuation into the nostrils and tongue, and an exit through the orifice of the lips; all these as one single series are comprised under "the lungs, their respiring and their vocalising," and taken together they correspond to the Understanding acting from the Will, their vocal sounds corresponding to the Understanding, and their movements to the Will.
 [124.] (6) These things are so with both the good and the wicked, except that, in the case of the wicked, the life of the Will is not purified, perfected and exalted by the life of the Understanding, but is befouled, corrupted arid debased by it. With every human being there is a Will and an Understanding, and there is conjunction between them, a reciprocal one actually; it is so therefore, with the wicked as well as with the good. But the Will's love differs in each individual, consequently his Understanding's wisdom differs too; this difference is so great, as between the good and the wicked, that they are the contrary of each other. With the good there is a love of good, and, from it, there is understanding of truth, whereas with the wicked, there is a love of evil and, from it, understanding of falsity. So that inasmuch as with the good, the Will's love is not only purified by the Understanding, but also perfected and exalted by it, as explained above, it follows that with the wicked, the Will's love is befouled, corrupted and debased by the Understanding. In externals, it is true, there is apparently similarity, because externals assume appearances and are deceptive; in internals, however, there is dissimilarity.
[] But how the matter actually is in itself can be very well illustrated from its correspondence with the heart and lungs. Everyone has a heart and lungs; in everyone too, there is conjunction between them, a reciprocal one actually; with everyone, also, the blood from the heart is freed in the lungs from impurities and fed with volatile elements and odours out of the air; in this, however, there is as between the good and the wicked the greatest dissimilarity. The nature of this purifying and feeding of the blood in the lungs with the good and the nature of it with the wicked can be judged from the following facts of experience: In the spiritual world, a good spirit draws in sweet and fragrant odours through his nostrils with delight, and finds putrid and unpleasant odours horrible; an evil spirit, on the other hand, draws in the putrid and unpleasant odours through his nostrils with delight, fleeing away from those that are sweet and fragrant. It is owing to this that in the hells there are odours that are loathsome, rank, stinking, rotten and the like, and this because every odour corresponds to the perception arising from the affection of some love; conversely, it is the same in the heavens in respect of fragrant odours.
[] This makes it clear that with men in the world the blood is fed through the atmosphere by things similar to itself, such as things of a like nature, and is freed from things dissimilar to itself, such as things of an unlike nature. Human blood is, in its inmost, spiritual, and in its outermost, corporeal: consequently those human beings who are spiritual, feed their blood from such things in Nature as correspond to spiritual things; whereas those who are not spiritual feed theirs from such things in Nature as correspond thereto. Hence there is just as great a difference in kind and degree between the blood in human beings as there is between their loves; for the blood corresponds to the love, as the things above said make clear.
 [125.] (7) The love that is the life of the Will, makes all man's life. It is generally supposed that thought makes all man's life, whereas it is love that does so. The reason thought is supposed to do so is that a man's thought is apparent to him, but his love is not. If you were to take away the love, or any stream derived from it, called an affection, thinking would cease; you would grow cold and die. This does not occur, however, if you only take away thought, as is the case when there is loss of memory, also during sleep, fainting or suffocation, and while in the womb; at such times, although the man does not think, he still lives as long as the heart is beating, for the heart corresponds to the love. It is the same with the Will and Understanding, love being of the Will, and thought being of the Understanding.
[] [126.] An illustration that the love makes all man's life was, moreover, provided in preceding sections by the correspondence between the heart and lungs; and by that, it was shown that, just as the heart forms the lungs in the womb in order that it may effect through them respiration and thus speech, so likewise does the love form the Understanding in order that it may think by means of it, and, from the thought, speak; in the same way, it was also shown that the love produces from itself affections, to which belong intentions, through these affections it produces perception to which belong "intuitions" (luces), through this perception it produces thought, to which belong ideas, and out of these latter it produces memory; all these taken together are of the love, in the Understanding, and to them correspond all the parts of the lungs in a similar series.
[] [127.] Just as the love has formed the Understanding for the use of thinking and speaking, so also it has formed all the other of life's functions, for their uses, some for the use of nutrition, some for the uses of blood-making and chyle-making, some for the uses of procreation, some for the uses of sensation, some for the uses of action and locomotion, and in all these nothing else can operate their life but that which itself formed them, which is the love. Their formation is effected by means of the heart and its blood, because the blood corresponds to the love and the heart to the receptacle of love; and the viscera, organs and members throughout the body are the productions in which the functioning of those uses have been given form by the love, by means of the heart. Any one able to investigate them will see that in these viscera, organs and members there are progressive series of uses from a first to a last, similar to the series in the lungs.
From the above, and from preceding sections, it is clear that the love which is of the Will makes all man's life, and that from it the life of his Understanding is derived, and that consequently a man is his love, and also his Understanding in respect of what is from the love and in accordance with it.
3345. From what has been said it is evident that there are kinds of speech successively more interior, but yet of such a nature that the one comes forth from the other in order, and also that the one is within the other in order. The nature of man's speech is known, and also his thought from which the speech flows, the analytics of which are of such a nature that they can never be explored. The speech of good spirits, that is, of the angels of the first heaven, together with the thought from which it flows, is more interior, and contains within it things still more wonderful and unexplorable. The speech of the angels of the second heaven together with the thought from which again this flows, is still more interior, containing within it things still more perfect and unutterable. But the speech of the angels of the third heaven together with the thought from which again this flows, is inmost, containing within it things absolutely unutterable. And although all these kinds of speech are of such a nature that they appear different from one another, nevertheless there is but one speech, because the one forms the other, and the one is within the other; moreover that which comes forth in the exterior is representative of the interior.
A man who does not think beyond worldly and bodily things cannot believe this, and therefore supposes that the interior things with him are nothing, although in fact they are everything; and the exterior things, that is, the worldly and corporeal things that he makes everything, are relatively scarcely anything.
1642. Such then is the speech used by spirits; but the speech of angelic spirits is more universal and perfect still, while that of angels is even more universal and perfect than that; for, as stated already, there are three heavens, the first where good spirits are, the second where angelic spirits are, and the third where angels are. The degrees of perfection rise one above another in this way, as things that are more exterior do in relation to more interior, almost - to use a comparison that will enable this point to be seen - as hearing stands in relation to sight, and sight to thought. For that which hearing is able to take in through an hour of speech may be presented to the sight within a minute, such as for example, views of plains, palaces, and cities. And what may be beheld by the eye over many hours may be comprehended by thought within a minute. Such is the measure of difference between the speech of spirits and that of angelic spirits, and between the latter's speech and that of angels. For angelic spirits acquire a clearer understanding from one single idea comprising speech or thought than spirits do by means of several thousand; and the understanding of angels is similarly greater compared to that of angelic spirits. How must it be then with the Lord, who is the source of all the life of affection, thought, and speech, and who alone is Speech and the Word?
Earths in the Universe
80. I have not said in what I have written so far what the angels from that world are like. Those who visit people in their world and sit by their heads (see 73 above) are not angels in their inner heaven, but angelic spirits or angels in their outer heaven. Since the nature of these angels has been disclosed to me, I should like to report what I was allowed to learn about them.
 One of the spirits of Jupiter who inspire fear came up to my left side below the elbow and talked with me from that position. His speech was strident, nor were the words separate and divided one from another, so that it took a long time before I was able to grasp his meaning. While he was speaking, he also struck fear into me at times. He warned me that I too should make the angels welcome when they came. But I was allowed to answer that it was not for me to do this, but all were received in my presence as they are themselves.
 Soon some angels from that world arrived, and I was able to perceive from the way they talked with me that they were quite different from the angels of our world. Their speech was not in spoken words, but in ideas which spread in all directions through my interiors; they also had an effect on my face, making it agree with each detail, beginning from the lips and spreading out to the periphery in all directions. The ideas which took the place of words were separated, but only slightly.
 Afterwards they talked with me by means of ideas even less separate one from another, so that there seemed to be hardly any interval between them. It seemed to my way of perception like the sense of words apprehended by those who pay attention to the sense but ignore the words. I found this speech easier to understand, and more filled with meaning. Like the previous kind of speech its influence was felt on the face, but to match their speech this was more continuous. But unlike the previous kind it did not begin from the lips, but from the eyes.
 Later still they spoke even more continuously and fully, and then my face was unable to keep pace with suitable movements; but I felt the influence acting on my brain, which then behaved in similar fashion. Finally they spoke in such a way that their speech fell only on my inner intellect. It was as fluid as a rarefied atmosphere. I could fell the influence, but not distinguish its details.
These types of speech were rather like fluids; the first like flowing water, the second like a more rarefied liquid, the third in comparison like air, and the fourth like a rarefied atmosphere. The spirit on my left side, whom I mentioned before, interjected remarks from time to time, especially to warn me to show restraint in dealing with his angels. For there were spirits from our world who introduced unpleasant ideas. He said he had not understood what the angels were saying, but he did later on, when he came close to my left ear. At that time too his speech was not as strident as before, but like that of other spirits.
Heaven and Hell
245. The speech of evil and infernal spirits is likewise natural to them because it is from affections; but it is from evil affections and consequent filthy ideas, to which angels are utterly averse. Thus the modes of speaking in hell are opposite to those of heaven; and in consequence evil spirits cannot endure angelic speech, and angels cannot endure infernal speech. To the angels infernal speech is like a bad odor striking the nostrils. The speech of hypocrites, who are such as are able to feign themselves angels of light, resembles in respect to words the speech of angels, but in respect to affections and consequent ideas of thought it is the direct opposite. Consequently, when the inner nature of their speech is perceived as wise angels perceive it, it is heard as the gnashing of teeth, and strikes with horror.
6985. 'For I am heavy in mouth and heavy in tongue' means that voice and speech from the Divine is not heard and not discerned. This is clear from the meaning of 'mouth' as voice, and from the meaning of 'tongue as speech. 'Mouth' means voice because it is the organ used by the voice, and 'tongue means speech because it is the organ used in speech. Anyone can see what the difference is between voice and speech, and that 'voice' is used in connection with being heard, but 'speech' with being discerned. In the literal sense written as history, where reference is made to Moses' being a person who could speak only with difficulty, there is no other way than 'heavy in mouth and heavy in tongue' to express the matter. But when this expression passes into the internal sense it is discerned by the angels in connection with the subject there; and when it is said of the Divine it is discerned to mean that the voice from the Divine cannot be heard directly, nor the speech from Him be discerned directly, only indirectly through spirits, as accords with what has been stated above in 6982.
Heaven and Hell
248. The speech of an angel or spirit with man is heard by him as audibly as the speech of man with man, yet by himself only, and not by others who are standing near. The reason is that the speech of an angel or spirit flows first into a man's thought, and by an inner way into his organ of hearing, and so sets it in motion from within, while the speech of man with man flows first into the air and by an outward way into his organ of hearing, and sets it in motion from without. Evidently, then, the speech of an angel or spirit with man is heard within him, and as it equally sets the organs of hearing in motion, it is equally audible. That the speech of an angel or a spirit flows down from within even into the ear has been made clear to me by the fact that it flows also into the tongue, causing a slight vibration, but not with any such motion as when the speech tone is articulated into words by the man himself by means of the tongue.
4342. CONCERNING THE INTERIOR MEMORY AND THE SPEECH THENCE PROCEEDING.
I conversed with spirits on the subject of their language or speech being the universal of all languages. When they converse with each other, they are unable to utter the name of any man whatever, or a word of any human language, but when they converse with me they think it is from themselves, but it is from my corporeal or material memory, whereby their ideas flow into names and words. Affirming that they could do it, they made the attempt among themselves to pronounce the name of Abraham, but were unable, as their speech is not [a speech] of words, but of ideas; which are formed into the origins of words. It thence appeared - and I spoke with them on the subject that absolutely nothing of vocal speech, much less the name of any man, kingdom, or region, could pass to spirits, but that it perishes with man, and that the sense only remains, which is such that while it is obscure to man, it becomes distinct with spirits, and is branched out into [particular] ideas. When spirits think of any person, city, or the like, of which they have had an idea derived from their experience in the world, they barely bring up the idea before them, that is, whatever they have heard or seen or conceived of a man, a kingdom, a city, which idea is sometimes simultaneous, sometimes ramified into many, and from thence flows their speech and a full perception. Thus also I have often spoken with spirits, namely in their own speech, and they perceived everything distinctly, and more things indeed in a moment than could be uttered in an hour, because it embraces in its bosom as much as the internal sight and thought, and by this can be presented almost simultaneously what would require a long time to utter and many pages to contain, as anyone may be satisfied who will attend to it. - 1749, August 6.
3901. CONCERNING THE INHABITANTS OF THE STARRY HEAVEN.
While I was engaged in writing the things (related) concerning the spirits of an earth in the starry universe, who advance to the ninth use,* they were present with me as also their god above my head, as had been the case before. They spoke indeed, but very little, being inclined to silence. They said that they could speak and yet wondered at their ability to do so, observing that when they spoke with me, as on this occasion, the speech was very obscure to them, so that they scarcely knew what they said, forasmuch as their life was not in our speech; wherefore they have a speech in which their life is, which they derive from the ninth use, where unto they advance. They are thus endowed with such a speech as can scarcely be expressed by ideas similar to ours, and their speech would be as obscure to us as ours is to them; for where the life is, there is the speech, and there also is the light and the intellectual of speech.
3637. THAT A MAN CAN PERCEIVE FROM HIMSELF THE [NATURE AND] QUALITY OF SPIRITS.
A man who reflects upon the common [or general] things of his thought, and who had not previously formed to himself ideas from corporeal things, may understand of what quality the world of spirits is; namely, [if he considers] that a speech of words is given, to which a man in speaking or hearing does not attend, but [only] to the sense of the words. His interior man is in this sphere; it is a sense of words, which obviously consists of ideas only, for in speaking he attends not at all to the words, but only to the sense of the words, which flow, as it were, spontaneously. This sense of words consists of ideas; without ideas no sense can be given. In this speech are the lower spirits among themselves, and then they know no otherwise than that they speak by words, when yet it is by ideas. Such man also becomes when he becomes a spirit, and such is then his speech. When man thinks, he himself knows not but that it is by words of speech, when yet it is by ideas, as everyone may be sensible if he reflects. Ideas afterwards flow of their own accord into whatever speech he is skilled in. That thought therefore is from ideas, which fall into the vocal speech of the man with whom they [spirits?] are, or with whom they speak. Wherefore the speech of spirits is universal, as is that of the thought of man unattended by vocal utterance.
817. And he spake as a dragon, signifies with a similar affection, thought, doctrine, and preaching, as belong to those who separate faith from the life of faith, which is charity. This is evident from the signification of "speaking," as being affection, thought, doctrine, and preaching. This is the signification of "speaking" because all the speech of man is from affection and the consequent thought. The affection itself is expressed by the sound of the speech, and the thought by its words. The affection and the thought are both of them in the speech, as everyone who reflects can see. The affection alone by itself cannot speak, it can only make a sound and sing; nor can thought alone by itself speak otherwise than as an automaton without life, since it is the affection that gives life to every expression of speech; and this is why a man is regarded by others according to the affection of his speech and not according to the words he utters. "To speak" signifies also to preach from doctrine, thus doctrine and preaching therefrom, because it is said that the beast "spake as a dragon;" and a "dragon" means those who are in faith separated from charity both in doctrine and in life (see above, n. 714); and this beast means confirmations from the sense of the letter of the Word in favor of the separation of faith from life, and the resulting falsifications of the Word; consequently "to speak as a dragon" signifies that kind of religion in respect to doctrine and preaching.
 As faith separate from charity and the resulting falsification of the Word are described by the dragon and its two beasts, I will show in this article that a like heresy is depicted in the Word by "Cain," by "Reuben," and by the "Philistines," and the like is meant also by the "he-goat" in Daniel. For there have been several churches on this earth, namely, the Most Ancient, which was before the flood; the Ancient, which was after the flood; the Jewish, which followed the Ancient; and lastly the Christian Church. All of these churches degenerated in process of time into two enormous errors, into one which adulterated all the goods of the church, and into the other which falsified all its truths. The church that adulterated all the goods of the church is described in the Word by the "Babylonians and Chaldeans;" and the church that falsified all the truths of the church is described by "Cain," by "Reuben," and by the "Philistines," and by the "he-goat" in Daniel which fought with the ram and overcame it. The adulteration of the good of the church, which is described by the "Babylonians and Chaldeans," will be spoken of hereafter where "Babylon" is treated of in Revelation; but now the falsification of truth shall be treated of, which is described here in Revelation by "the dragon and his two beasts," and was also described by "Cain," and by the others above mentioned.
 That those who separate the knowledges of truth and good from a life according to them, and who believe that they may be saved by these alone, were represented by "Cain," has been briefly shown in the Arcana Coelestia where Cain and Abel are treated of; to which this shall be added. It is written of Cain:
That he was the firstborn of Adam, and that he tilled the ground, and brought of the fruit of the ground an offering to Jehovah; and that Abel was a shepherd of the flock, and brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof; also that Jehovah had respect unto the offering of Abel and not unto the offering of Cain, that therefore Cain's anger was kindled and he slew his brother; and that Cain was therefore accursed and rejected from the ground, and became a wanderer and fugitive in the earth; and that Jehovah set a sign upon Cain lest he should be slain, and decreed that whoever should slay him should have vengeance taken on him sevenfold (see Gen. 4).
It is to be known that all names of persons and places in the Word signify things and states of the church, especially the names in the first chapters of Genesis, because the stories in those chapters are made-up histories containing the deepest arcana of heaven, and yet they are most holy in the sense of the letter, because in every least word there is a spiritual sense that conjoins the heavens with the men of the church. What these stories involve in the spiritual sense and what the names of the persons there signify has been explained in the Arcana Coelestia. "Cain" signifies the knowledges of truth and good separated from a life according to them, thus from heavenly love, and "Abel" signifies heavenly love; or what is the same, "Cain" signifies truth separated from good, and "Abel" good conjoined with truth. And as truth is the first thing of the church, since every church is formed by means of truths, because every church begins from truths or from the knowledges of truth and good, therefore Cain was the firstborn, and was named "man" [vir] of Jehovah," "man of Jehovah" signifying in the Word the truth of heaven and the church; and the "ground" which Cain tilled signifies the church. The separation of truth from good is signified by the murder of Abel by Cain; for when everything of the church is placed in truths or in knowledges, and not in goods or in the affection of living according to truths, good with its affections is slain. And as everything of the church perishes when truth is separated from good, so Cain "was cast forth from the ground," which, as has been said, signifies the church. But because truths are the first things of the church, for life must be learned from truths, "a sign was set on Cain, lest someone should slay him; and it was decreed that if anyone should slay him he should be avenged seven-fold." And because truth without good is carried hither and thither, having nothing to lead it, and consequently falls successively into falsities, and departs from the way that leads to heaven, so Cain "was cast forth from the face of Jehovah, and became a wanderer and fugitive." The like is true of faith and charity, since faith is of truth and charity is of good; so when faith is separated from charity what is said of Cain takes place, namely, that "it kills Abel its brother," which is charity, and in consequence the church perishes, which is signified by "being cast forth from the ground, and becoming a wanderer and fugitive," for when faith is separated from charity truth is successively turned into falsity and falls away.
 It has been shown above (n. 434), that "Reuben," the firstborn of Jacob, signified the light of truth and thence the understanding of the Word, and thus truth from good or faith from charity, as did the apostle Peter; and that conversely, "Reuben" represented truth separated from good, or faith separated from charity, and that this faith is signified by his adultery with Bilhah his father's concubine, in consequence of which the birthright was taken away from him and given to Joseph. To this may be added, that all heresies, so far as they are adulterations and falsifications of the Word, correspond to adulteries and whoredoms of various kinds, and these because of this correspondence are actually perceived in the spiritual world from those who are in heresies. The reason of this is that marriages as they exist in the heavens derive their spiritual origin from the conjunction of good and truth; and conversely, adulteries derive their origin from the conjunction of evil and falsity; and this is why heaven is compared in the Word to a marriage, and hell to adultery. And as there is in the hells the conjunction of evil and falsity, so there continually exhales therefrom a sphere of adultery. It is for this reason that "adulteries and whoredoms" signify in the Word the adulterations of the good of the church and the falsifications of its truth (see above, n. 141, 161).
 In respect to faith separated from charity, this is perceived in the spiritual world as the adultery of a son with a mother as also with a step-mother. This is so because that faith shuts out the good of charity; and when this is shut out the evil of the love of self and of the world takes its place, and that faith conjoins itself with that love. For every kind of faith must necessarily conjoin itself with some love; therefore when spiritual love, which is charity, is separated, faith then conjoins itself with the love of self or with the love of the world, which are the loves that are dominant in the natural man; and this is why so heinous an adultery results from faith separated from charity. From this then it is clear what is signified by the adultery of Reuben with Bilhah his father's concubine, and why he was rejected for this reason from the right of the primogeniture. This is also meant by the prophecy of Israel his father respecting Reuben:
Reuben my firstborn, thou art my power and the beginning of my vigor; excelling in exaltation and excelling in strength; light as water, thou shalt not excel, because thou wentest up to thy father's bed, then thou didst profane it, he went up to my couch (Gen. 49:3, 4).
These words may be seen explained in the Arcana Coelestia (n. 6341-6350). That such adultery is perceived in the spiritual world from faith separated from charity has been made evident to me from correspondences in that world. For whenever I have perceived afar off the sphere of adultery with a mother or stepmother, I have known at once that those who had confirmed themselves in faith alone both in doctrine and in life were near, and they were also then discovered; and when they had been explored they were found to have been such in the world.
 So much respecting Reuben; we will now speak of the Philistines; these also in the Word represent faith separated from love. It was for this reason that they were called the "uncircumcised;" for "one uncircumcised" signifies one who is destitute of spiritual love, and is solely in natural love, and with that love alone no religious principle can be conjoined, much less anything of the church; for every religious principle and everything of the church has regard to the Divine, to heaven, and to spiritual life; and these cannot be conjoined with any other than a spiritual love; but not with a natural love separated from a spiritual love; since natural love separated from spiritual love is man's own [proprium], and this, regarded in itself, is nothing but evil. All the wars that the sons of Israel waged against the Philistines represented the combats of the spiritual man with the natural man, and thence also the combats of truth conjoined with good against truth separated from good, which in itself is not truth but falsity. For truth separated from good is falsified in the idea of the thought respecting it, and for the reason that there is nothing spiritual present in the thought to enlighten it. For the same reason those who are in faith separated from charity have no truth, except merely in their speech or in their preaching from the Word, the idea of truth instantly perishing as soon as truth is thought about.
 Because this religion exists in the churches with all who love to live a natural life, so in the land of Canaan the Philistines were not subjugated, as the other nations of that land were, and consequently there were many battles with them. For all the historical things of the Word are representative of such things as pertain to the church; and all the nations of the land of Canaan represented things heretical confirming either the falsities of faith or the evils of the love; while the sons of Israel represented the truths of faith and the goods of love, and thus the church. But what was represented by the wars that the inhabitants of the land of Canaan carried on will be told in its place and time; here it shall merely be shown that the Philistines represented a religious principle separated from spiritual good, such as is the religious principle of faith alone separated from its life, which is charity. This is why the sons of Israel whenever they fell away from the worship of Jehovah to the worship of other gods were given over to their enemies, or were conquered by them:
Thus they were given over to the Philistines, and served them eighteen years, and afterwards forty years (Judges 10; 13).
This represented their departure from the worship from the good of love and the truths of faith to worship from the evils of love and the falsities of faith. Likewise:
The sons of Israel were conquered and distressed by the Philistines (1 Sam. 4; 13; 28; 29; 31).
But when the sons of Israel returned to the worship of Jehovah, which was the worship from the good of love and the truths of faith, they conquered the Philistines (1 Sam. 7, 14; 2 Sam. 5, 8, 21, 23; 2 Kings 18). That these historical things involve such things can be seen only from the series of things there described when viewed in the internal sense, to present which here would occupy too much time; therefore one passage only from the prophetical parts of the Word shall be cited, from which it will be manifest that such things as pertain to the church were represented by the Philistines in these narratives.
 Thus in Isaiah:
Rejoice not, O Philistea, all of thee, because the rod that smiteth thee is broken; for out of the serpent's root shall come forth a basilisk, whose fruit shall be a fiery-flying serpent. Then the firstborn of the poor shall feed, and the needy shall lie down in safety; and I will kill thy root with famine, and he shall slay thy remnant. Howl, O gate; cry out, O city; thou whole Philistea art dissolved; for from the north cometh a smoke, and none shall be alone in thy assemblies. What then shall one answer, ye messengers of the nation? That Jehovah hath founded Zion, and in her the afflicted of His people shall hope (14:29-32).
This describes Philistea, which signifies the church, or those in the church who indeed are in truths from the sense of the letter of the Word or from some other revelation, and yet are in filthy loves, consequently their truths are not living truths; and truths not living are turned into falsities when they are brought from exterior thought, which is the thought next to the speech, into interior thought, which belongs to the understanding, also when this thought considers truths in their origin, which those who are meant by "the Philistines" do not see. They do not see for the reason that while every man, even an evil man, has a faculty to understand, he has no good of the will, which is the good of life; for this good springs from love to God and from love to the neighbor, and it is these loves that cause that faculty to communicate with heaven and receive enlightenment therefrom.
 This chapter in Isaiah describes those who are in truths without good, and shows that with such all truths are turned into falsities. This, therefore, is the spiritual sense of these words: "Rejoice not, O Philistea, all of thee, because the rod that smiteth thee is broken," signifies that they should not rejoice because they are permitted to remain in their heresy by reason of the fewness of those who are in truths from good; "for out of the serpent's root shall come forth a basilisk" signifies that out of the sensual man a dogma destructive of all truth will arise; "the serpent's root" being the sensual, which is the ultimate of man's life, and "the basilisk" being the destruction of all truth. "Whose fruit shall be a fiery-flying serpent" signifies from which there will spring faith separated from charity; this faith is meant by "a fiery-flying serpent" because it flies upwards by means of reasonings and confirmations from things revealed that are not understood, and thus it kills the things that are living. In like manner "the basilisk" has a similar signification as "the dragon," which is also called "a serpent;" and "the fiery-flying serpent" has a similar signification as "the beast coming up out of the sea and the beast out of the earth," in this chapter of Revelation. "Then the firstborn of the poor shall feed, and the needy shall lie down in safety," signifies that when that dogma is received by those who are natural and sensual men, and who believe themselves to be wiser than others, truths from good with those who desire what is true and will what is good, will become living; "the firstborn" in the Word signify truths born from good; the "poor" those who are not in truths but who still desire them, and the "needy" those who are not in goods but who in heart will them. "And I will kill thy root with famine, and he shall slay thy remnant," signifies that all truths, from the first of them to the last, will be destroyed by falsities. "Howl, O gate; cry out, O city," signifies that no entrance will be granted to any truth, and that doctrine will be made up of mere falsities, "gate" signifying entrance to the truths of doctrine, and "city" doctrine. "Thou whole Philistea art dissolved" signifies the destruction of that church by mere falsities. "For from the north cometh a smoke" signifies that every falsity from evil will break in from hell, "the north" meaning hell, and "smoke" the falsity of evil. "And none shall be alone in thy assemblies" signifies that there shall not remain a single truth among their knowledges. "What then shall one answer, ye messengers of the nation?" signifies the enlightenment of those who are in the good of life from love to the Lord. "That Jehovah hath founded Zion" signifies that a church shall be established from them; "and in her the afflicted of His people shall hope" signifies that those who are not in wisdom from self, and who conquer in temptations against such falsities, shall have intelligence and salvation.
 The vastation of truth by falsities with those who are meant by "the Philistines" is also described by Jeremiah 47:1-7; likewise in Ezekiel 25:15, 16; in Joel 3:4-6; in Amos 1:8. That such falsify truths is meant by "the daughters of the Philistines," mentioned in Ezekiel 16:27, 57; also in 2 Sam. 1:20; "the daughters of the Philistines" there meaning the affections of falsity. Their religious principle was also represented by their idol called Dagon, which was set up in Ashdod, and which, according to their description, was formed like a man from the head to the navel, and like a fish from the navel downwards; its being like a man from the head to the navel represented the understanding derived from truths; and like a fish from the navel downwards represented the natural destitute of the good of love; for the lower part down to the knees corresponds to celestial love, and a "fish" signifies the natural man which is without spiritual good. (That "man" [homo] signifies the affection of truth, may be seen above, n. 280; that his "head" signifies the understanding of truth and intelligence therefrom, n. 553; that a "fish" signifies the natural man, n. 513; and that the generative organs signify from correspondence celestial love, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 5050-5062. Moreover, the "emerods" with which the Philistines were smitten when the ark of God was held captive by them, signified truths defiled by evils of life; but these and other things related about them in 1 Sam. 5 may be seen explained above, n. 700.)
 Truth defiled by evil of life is signified also by "the uncircumcised" (2 Sam. 1:20; Ezek. 28:10; 31:18; 32:18, 19; 44:9). For the foreskin corresponds to corporeal love, because the member which it covers corresponds to spiritual and celestial love. And because "the Philistines" represented those who are in knowledge (scientia) and cognitions of truth without any spiritual and celestial good, they were called "uncircumcised." And as the sons of Israel were also actually of the same character, in order that they might nevertheless represent the church which is in spiritual and celestial good and in truths therefrom, it was commanded that they should be circumcised. From this it can be seen that the religious principle at this day that separates charity from faith is in the representative sense Philistea.
 So much respecting the Philistines. Something shall now be said about the goats and sheep, upon which judgment will be executed, according to the Lord's words in Matthew (25:31 to the end). The common opinion is that the "goats" there mean all the evil, and it has not been known heretofore that the "goats" there mean those who are in faith separated from charity, and the "sheep" those who are in faith from charity. In a good sense "goats" mean those who are in natural good and in truths therefrom, which truths are called the knowledges (cognitiones) of truth and good from the natural sense of the Word. Such as these, or such good and such truth therefrom, are signified by the goats that were sacrificed. That there were also sacrifices of goats is evident from Lev. 4:23; 9:2-4, 8-23; 16:2-20; 23:18,19; Num. 15:22-29; 28:11-15, 18 to the end; 29; and elsewhere. For all the beasts that were offered as sacrifices signified such things as pertain to the church, all of which have reference to goods and truths. The celestial goods and the truths therefrom in which are the angels in the third heaven were signified by "lambs," while the spiritual goods and truths in which are the angels in the middle heaven were signified by "rams," and the natural goods and truths therefrom, in which are the angels who are in the lowest heaven, were signified by "goats." Celestial goods and truths are with those who are in love to the Lord; but spiritual goods and truths are with those who are in love towards the neighbor; and natural goods and truths with those who live well according to truths from natural affection. This is the signification of these three kinds of beasts in various parts of the Word (as in Ezek. 27:21; Deut. 32:14).
 But as most things in the Word have also a contrary sense, so "goats" signify in that sense those who are in faith separated from charity, for the reason that they are more lascivious than other animals, and that they signify in the genuine sense those who are in natural good and the truth thence, and all who are in faith separated from charity both in doctrine and in life are merely natural. That such are meant in the Word by "goats" has been shown me to the life in the spiritual world. There various beasts are seen; but they are not such beasts as exist in our world, that is, not beasts that have been born, but they are correspondences of the affections and of the thoughts therefrom of spirits and angels; consequently as soon as those affections and the thoughts therefrom vary and cease, these beasts vanish out of sight. That I might know that those who are in faith separated from charity, or rather the affections and thoughts of such from their faith, are represented by "goats," it was granted me to see some of those spirits; and they appeared before my eyes and the eyes of many others altogether as goats with horns. Moreover, when rams and sheep were sent among them these goats being kindled with anger rushed upon them, and strove to throw them down, but in vain. For in the spiritual world goats have no power against the rams or sheep, therefore the goats were overcome. Afterwards it was granted me to see the same as men; and this was a proof that the goats were identical with those who had lived in the world in faith separated from charity.
 From this what is signified by the "ram" and the "he-goat," and "the battle between them," in the eighth chapter of Daniel can be seen, namely, that the "ram" there means those who are in faith from charity, and the "he-goat" those who are in faith separated from charity. Thus the future state of the church is there described, namely, that faith separate would dissipate all charity, which is the good of life, and falsity therefrom would have rule in the Christian world. To illustrate this, I will present a summary of what is related in Daniel respecting the ram and the he-goat, as follows:
Daniel saw in vision a ram that had two horns, one higher than the other, but the higher came up last; and he made himself great. But then a he-goat of the goats came from the west over the faces of all the earth; and he charged upon the ram and smote him, and broke his two horns; and he cast the ram down to the earth, and trampled upon him. The he-goat had a horn between his eyes, and when this was broken there came up four horns in its place towards the four winds of the heavens; and out of one of them came forth one horn which grew exceedingly, even to the host of the heavens, and cast down some of the host and of the stars to the earth and trampled upon them. Yea, it exalted itself even to the prince of the host, and the continual burnt-offering was taken away from him, and the dwelling-place of his sanctuary was cast down; and it cast down the truth to the earth (8:1-14, seq.).
That the "ram" here means those who are in faith from charity, and the "he-goat" those who are in faith separated from charity, may be seen above (n. 316 and n. 573), where the same things are explained; therefore I pass by any further explanation.
 Again that "he-goats" mean those who are in faith separated from charity, and "rams" those who are in faith from charity, is evident also in Ezekiel:
And as for you, O my flock, behold I judge between cattle and cattle, and between rams and he-goats (34:17).
Likewise in Zechariah:
Mine anger was kindled against the shepherds, and I will visit upon the he-goats (10:3).
From this it can be seen that the goats and the sheep in Matthew (25:31 to the end) have the same meaning; consequently works of charity only are there enumerated which were done by the sheep, and were not done by the goats. That such are there meant by the "goats" was proved also when the Last Judgment was accomplished upon those who belonged to the Christian Church; for then all those who were in faith separated from charity both in doctrine and life were cast into hell; and all who were in faith from charity were kept safe.
3128. About speech with spirits
Speech with spirits appears to them exactly like the speech of people on earth among themselves, and one might be surprised that they do not perceive it but as entirely the same. Yet the difference is such as that between speech of the mouth and speech of the thought, so that the thought is speaking, not the tongue or mouth, and that spirits see at once if the person wants to hide something, and if something else lies hidden [than] what is pretended. If there is something like that, or if the person wants to hide something, then they rather at once draw forth his thoughts into the light, and if he pretends something, then he is at once blamed of falsehood.
Moreover, speech with spirits is richer, so that everything contained in verbal ideas is more fully visible, besides more things that have been said about spirits and mental images earlier. This [was written] in the presence of those who could not see otherwise but that the speech of spirits and people on earth are the same. And in fact, if [a spirit] were to speak in this way to man such as he is, then within several minutes the person's brain would be pulled apart and he would become insane. 1748, 12 Sept.
1639. The speech of words, as has been said, is the speech proper to man, and in fact to his corporeal memory; but the speech of ideas of thought is the speech of spirits, and in fact of the interior memory, which is the memory of the spirit. Men are not aware that they have this memory, because the memory of particulars, or of material things, which is corporeal, is everything, and obscures the interior memory; when yet without the interior memory, which is proper to his spirit, man cannot think at all. From this memory I have often spoken with spirits, thus in their own language, that is, by ideas of thought. How universal and copious this language is, may be seen from the fact that every word contains an idea of great extension; for it is well known that the single idea of a word may be set forth by many words; and this is still more true of the idea of one whole subject, and still more so of the idea of a number of such subjects, which can be brought together into one compound idea that still appears as simple; from which may be seen what is the quality of the natural speech of spirits among themselves, and by means of which speech man is conjoined with spirits.
3051. the idea of one word is usually able to be expressed by many, and so are all the words in a chain of the speech of thought. This is an amazing thing, i.e. that spirits among themselves do not know that there is such speech and that they communicate their thoughts by means of it, because they are without any reflection on the speech of words, of which they are mutually ignorant because they do not reflect on it, for the reason that it is natural.
And now I realize that it is that speech of spirits in earthly humans that governs the speech of words, as I am now aware while writing these words. But that earthly humans do not know this and perhaps realize it, is because it is natural to their spirit, which they do not know they have. And that they do not know, or perhaps realize that these things are so, is because they cling, some to words, some to bodily things, some to worldly ones, whereby the faculty of understanding them perishes. I also realize that in a grouSpiritual Experiences (Odhner) 3050.
3050. The true speech of spirits
The speech of words is not the speaking that is proper to spirits, but to mankind, or to the bodily memory; but the speech of the inward memory is the true speech of spirits, and what it is like was shown to me today. It is thought, and to be sure, communicative thought, by which I spoke with them just now, and in fact about how all that they can understand and can perceive is their knowledge, even if they had not previously known that they knew it. For they understand instantaneously, and because they understand, it cannot but be in them and can be said to be from them as well as anyone else who declares it.
So that speech is an inward speaking, embracing many things, for it is simultaneously observant of the thinking of the other, and perceptive of whether he is of the same thought. It is of such a nature that it is hardly ever wrong. In short, it is a communication of ideas, one of which cannot be expressed by many words, and if it is expressed this still brings out little, for [the communication] has with it its entire mental image, so to speak, that is being manifested.
Such is the speech of spirits among themselves, in short, not words, but the images of words, for each word has a mental image of great extension, as is evident from the fact that
2868. THAT THOUGHT IS PERCEIVED BY SPIRITS, [AS] LIKE AN EXHALATION AND [THAT] THEY ARE LED BY SUCH.
I have carried on speaking with spirits in different modes: There is a speech very similar to the human [speech] and to language [linguae] with a manifest action on the tongue and organs of speech - next a cogitative speech as it were, thought speaking besides this purer [speech] which is of interior thought, the thought whereof I did not perceive except by a sort of exhalation as it were, or [a sort] of thought exhaling from the interior. Therefore, there are many intermediate varieties of speech [loquela sunt intermediae plures] [by] many of which I have conversed
832. That the image of the beast should both speak. That this signifies that thence something in agreement flowed out of heaven into the thought nearest to the speech excited and enkindled from natural love, is evident from the discourse and preaching of those who confirm the separation of faith from life by the Word. For all and every part of the Word communicates with the heavens, and hence there flows something holy into the person speaking or preaching; but with those who are in faith separated from life, this holy somewhat cannot flow into any spiritual affection and the thought therefrom, because such persons are not spiritual but merely natural; it flows therefore into their natural love, which excites and enkindles the thought nearest to speech. This is why such persons can also speak and preach like those who are spiritual, although they have no spiritual, but only natural, affection, which is the affection of glory, honour, or gain. This affection, however, is excited, indeed enkindled, owing to the influx of what is holy from heaven.
 The reason why the sense of the letter of the Word communicates with heaven is, because the whole and every part of it contains in itself a spiritual sense; and the spiritual sense is perceived in the heavens, when the natural sense, which is the sense of the letter, is understood by man. That this is the case has been proved to me by much experience from the spiritual world. I have heard some repeat words taken from the sense of the letter of the Word, and have perceived that communication was immediately given them with some society of heaven; for the spiritual sense, which was in the words then recited from the sense of the letter, penetrated to that society. Evil spirits sometimes abuse this communication to procure themselves favour and protection from the heavens. It is evident therefore what is the quality of the Word in the sense of the letter. And because it is a means of communicating with heaven, therefore the Spiritual in agreement with the Natural, and which is moreover holy, flows in therefrom into the natural love of the person speaking or preaching from the Word; and this love excites the thought nearest to their speech. It is said the thought nearest to speech, because man has interior and exterior thought. He is in a state of interior thought when he is alone and thinks in himself, but in exterior thought when he is with others and speaks with them. It is known to every one, that a man can think in himself in a manner different from that which he makes use of in speaking before men. This exterior thought is that which is meant by the thought nearest to speech. This thought is excited and enkindled by natural love, which is the love of glory, honour, or gain with those who are in falsities, and who confirm them from the sense of the letter of the Word. Now this is what is meant by a spirit given to the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should speak; by which is signified, that in the doctrine of faith separate from life, there was also, by conjunction with the Word, something of spiritual life; and that therefore something in agreement flowed in out of heaven into the thought nearest to speech, which is excited and enkindled by natural love.
 Because in a former article we treated of the spiritual love, in which those are who dwell in the second heaven, and which constitutes their life; and since it is not known how love becomes spiritual, it shall here be briefly explained.
All love becomes spiritual by means of truths from the Word, in proportion as a man acknowledges and sees them in his understanding, and afterwards loves them, that is, does them from the will. The reason why the love becomes spiritual by means of truths from the Word in proportion as a man acknowledges and sees them in the understanding is, that a man has two memories, and consequently two kinds of thought, this being the case both with the evil and the good - interior and exterior. Every man thinks in himself from the interior memory, when, left to himself, he is led of his own love. This thought is that of his spirit. But a man thinks from the exterior memory when he speaks before the world. Every one may see by a little reflection that these two kinds of thought exist. The things which man thinks in himself from the interior memory when left to himself, are those pertaining to his life, and become associated with his life; for it is his spirit which then thinks, or, what is the same, it is the affection proper to his life which excites such thought. But the things which a man thinks from the exterior memory, if they do not make one with the thought of the interior memory, do not pertain to his life, nor do they become associated with his life, for they are corporeal and belong to the world; these after death are cast aside, when a man becomes a spirit.
It is therefore evident what is the nature of the state of those who are evil, and who fear neither God nor man, namely, that inwardly they think evils and falsities, although outwardly they may think and speak truths and also do goods; and that such goods and truths are dissipated when man puts off the body and becomes a spirit, the evils and the falsities remaining with them.
But the case is different with the good. These, because they have feared God and loved their neighbour, when they think from the interior memory, think from the truths that are from good, and similarly in regard to the exterior memory, so that with them these two thoughts make one. And because they are in truths from good, the internal spiritual man is opened; and this is conjoined with angels in the heavens, and is essentially an angel of heaven. Such a man, being in the light of heaven, in which spiritual truths appear as clearly as objects in the world appear before the eye, receives truths when he sees them, and forms his understanding from them. He has spiritual faith, therefore, which is essentially the acknowledgment of truth because it is seen in the understanding. Natural faith, which is to believe that a thing is so because another has declared it, is to them no faith. They call this faith historical, and, in the case of some, persuasive faith, which remains only so far as it agrees with love of their life. Who cannot see that nothing can enter a man's life, and constitute it, except that which has been previously seen to be so in the thought, and afterwards willed to be so? From these things it is evident, that in order that a man's love may become spiritual, he ought to see his truths, that is, to grasp them by the understanding.
 If, however, it is said that spiritual truths cannot be seen, and that the understanding cannot be so far opened, while a man is in the world, let it be known that he who loves truth from truth, that is, because it is truth, can see truth; and the truths that he does not see in the world he sees afterwards in heaven. For the very love of truth is receptive of the light of heaven; for this enlightens the understanding. Moreover, every one can receive in thought and understand more truths than he himself knows, unless his own love induces obscurity and causes darkness. This has been frequently testified to me in the spiritual world. For evil spirits have understood spiritual truths equally as well as good spirits, indeed, almost like angels, when they have been uttered; but as soon as they turned away their ears, and returned back into the state of their own love, they understood nothing whatever. It is evident, therefore, that every man has the faculty of understanding truths, and seeing them; but that the love of truth for the sake of truth alone causes man to understand them in the world rationally, but after death spiritually.
 But love with man, and his life therefrom, do not become spiritual by merely knowing and understanding truths, unless he also wills and does them. For, as just now said, an evil man, whose love is infernal, can know and understand truths equally well as a good man whose love is heavenly. Consequently the evil believe that, on account of their knowledges and the understanding of truths, they will not only come into heaven, but also be there amongst the intelligent, of whom it is said that "They shall shine as the stars"; when, nevertheless, if they do not also love or will to do the truths which they know and understand, they come after death amongst those who are in hell, from whom all truths are taken away. For every one after death becomes his own love; and in the world every one becomes his own love by willing and doing according to his understanding and knowledge. For a man's love dwells in these, and the truths of the understanding dwell in the love. It is evident, therefore, whence man has life, for it is love that constitutes his life.
 There are three degrees of life in a man. The third degree is that in which are the angels of the third heaven. The second is that in which are the angels of the second heaven; and the first is that in which are the angels of the first or ultimate heaven. There is also a lowest degree, which is corporeal and material; a man is in this while he lives in the world. These degrees are opened in him according to the reception of Divine truth in his life; and Divine truth is received in the life when truth is willed and done according as it is known and understood. And because the love and life of man make one, it follows that there are as many degrees of love as there are degrees of life. The love in which are the angels of the third heaven is called celestial love; that in which are the angels of the second heaven is called spiritual love; and that in which are the angels of the first heaven is called spiritual-natural love, also celestial- natural. As is their love such is their wisdom and intelligence. Those who are in the third degree of love and thence of wisdom, live in an atmosphere purely ethereal, as it were. Those who are in the second degree of love, and thence of intelligence, live as if in an atmosphere purely aerial, as it were. And those who are in the first degree of love, and thence of knowledge, live in an atmosphere purely watery, as it were. And because the purity of their life is in a degree similar to that of their love, it is evident that those who are in the third heaven, and in the love and life of that heaven, cannot be approached by those who are in the second and first heavens. For to ascend from the second heaven into the third would be like a bird flying above its own atmosphere into the ether; and to ascend from the first heaven into the second would be like a fish raised out of the water into the air, where it would suffer the greatest pain and be suffocated.
These things are stated in order that it may be known that spiritual love is the love of truth in act; and that the love of truth in act is according to the sight of truth in the understanding; and that the faith of that love is nothing else but the acknowledgment of truth from that sight and understanding. This, therefore, is spiritual faith.
7745. During my conversation with this spirit, some spirits betook themselves toward the front part of the head, where he was, and pressed upon him; whereupon he retired to one side and gave them place. The stranger spirits talked among themselves, but neither the spirits about me, nor I, understood what they said. I was instructed by angels that they were spirits from the earth Mars, who know how to talk together in such a way that the spirits present would neither understand nor perceive what they said. I wondered that such speech is possible, seeing that all spirits have one speech; and all speech flows from thought, and this consists of ideas, which in the spiritual world are in the place of words; and the ideas which are words, together with the thought itself before it becomes speaking thought, are plainly perceived in the other life. I was told that by a certain method by means of the lips and the face these spirits form ideas not intelligible to others, and that at the moment when they are speaking with one another by this means, they artfully withdraw their thoughts from others; taking especial care that nothing of affection shall manifest itself; for if anything of affection is perceived, the thought would then be open, because the thought flows from the affection. I was further instructed that those inhabitants of the earth Mars who make celestial life to consist in knowledges alone, and not in the life of love, have contrived such speech; yet not all of them; and that when these become spirits they retain it. These are they who were especially signified by the bird of stone; for to form speech by modifications of the countenance and foldings of the lips together with a removal of the affections and a withdrawal of the thoughts from others, is to deprive speech of its soul, and to make it like an image, and gradually also to make themselves so.
3881. From the angels, through spirits, I was instructed that they were the inhabitants of Mars, who so spoke with each other, that no spirit could understand them. They informed me that they have such a speech among themselves that no spirit can understand it, wherefore when they are unwilling that others should perceive what they say, they then discourse together in this manner, and others, when they do not perceive its meaning withdraw. But I wondered that such a speech should be given, for every kind of speech involves ideas, without which I had not supposed that any speech was given. They replied that in that speech ideas were formed in a certain manner, which [however] were unintelligible to others; wherefore they then take care that there shall be nothing of affection [in it]; if there is anything of affection, others would thence immediately perceive its meaning. They spoke therefore from ideas thus formed without affection (:I now perceive that this is a habit which is not good, for to speak without affection is also the bird of pearl; as when there is no affection, there is no life, although there seems to be life, and thus the bird can even fly, for a bird signifies thought, and a bird of pearl thought without affection. I perceive also that the inhabitants of Mars have induced such a speech upon themselves, because they are in thoughts and have receded from affection, in which they were at first, so that they speak alike, that is, from thought, not from affection, which is the bird of pearl:)
412. THAT THE WORDS OF SPEECH CANNOT EXPRESS, STILL LESS EXHAUST, ANYTHING IN THE THIRD HEAVEN; ALSO CONCERNING THE EFFICACY OF WINGED SPEECH IN GENERAL
By the speech alone and the pronunciation of the words it could be heard and perceived in a spiritual manner, unknown to others, what was in them; it is at once manifest that they do not exhaust their meaning. But what it is that limits words so finitely, and turns them into another sense, cannot as yet be evident; for even significative words can be deprived of their signification by the general state of spirits in the lower sphere of the third heaven. Moreover, it is sufficiently certain that man's speech can by no means exhaust those interior things which are heavenly; wherefore they are infilled by God Messiah in order that they may flow to spirits and angels according to the apprehension and perception of each, and may penetrate, also according to the effect which the speech is to set forth. Such speech can be called winged, but representatively. 1747, Dec. 28.
7361. I have also been allowed to know about the existence of this kind of speech among the most ancient people on our planet through my mixing with some of them, regarding which see 607, 608. To make this matter clearer let me repeat what I have been allowed to know through experience about the speech of the most ancient people belonging to our planet, namely the following told in 1118. By means of a certain influx that I am unable to describe I have been shown the type of speech which those people who belonged to the Most Ancient Church employed. It was not articulated, like the vocal speech of our own times, but was non-audible, produced not by external breathing but by means of internal breathing. I have also been allowed to ascertain the nature of their internal breathing. It came from between the navel and the heart and so through the lips without any sounds when they were speaking.
 It did not enter someone else's ear by an external route, striking what is called the ear-drum, but by a certain internal route, and in point of fact by that part there which is nowadays called the Eustachian tube. I have been shown that by means of this type of speech they were able to express far more fully the feelings present in the mind (animus) and the ideas comprising their thought (cogitatio) than can possibly be done by articulated sounds or spoken words, which are similarly delivered by means of breath, which however is external. For not one word nor even any part of a word is delivered without the use of breath. But with those people of the Most Ancient Church it was delivered in a far more perfect way because it was done by means of internal breathing. And because this interior breathing is also far more perfect, it is more applicable and appropriate to the actual ideas comprising thought. In addition they even communicated by movements of the lips and by corresponding changes of facial expression. For, being celestial people, whatever they were thinking shone out of their face and eyes which altered correspondingly; the shape of their face and the life expressed in it would alter, and the light seen in their eyes would change. They were quite incapable of assuming facial expressions that did not accord with what they were thinking. Pretence, and still more deception, was to them something absolutely outrageous. Because that type of speech existed with them, and because they had internal breathing, they were therefore able to live in company with angels.
4670. CONCERNING HEAVEN AND THE WORD.
I spoke with those who are in the third heaven, whom it was granted me to understand in part, because there was an angel with me at the time. The speech which prevails there, differs entirely from the speech of the angels of the second heaven; for it is a perceptive speech from affections, thus from the changes of the heavenly heat, the light there assisting. That speech cannot be expressed. They have a perception of all things which are there, and beneath, solely from the varieties of affection. The light assisting, they have discourse; and it is visible and perceptible to them; nor can spirits, save those who are of the celestial genius, or those to whom it is granted by the Lord to observe it, know of what quality it is. It simultaneously comprehends innumerable things; so that such things as can be expressed by the speech of the angels of the second heaven in a half hour, can here [be expressed] in a moment; and, also, very many things that cannot be expressed in the speech of the second heaven: hence it is clear that the wisdom there is indescribable. In that heaven, all are acquainted with each other, as to whence they are and of what quality; so that, [in] that universal heaven, where are myriads of myriads, still are they [all] known by each individual. They know, from perception, of what quality they are, and what is the difference of their good, wisdom, and intelligence, and, if they desire it, to what province in the human body it corresponds. They appeared to me in a flaming and very great brightness, and like infants; also high in front. There was as it were a cloud, which was opened, and thus they were seen.
5565. The case is similar with celestial speech in relation to spiritual speech. In celestial speech is such wisdom as cannot be expressed in spiritual speech, nor even grasped in idea; as, also, was proved by a certain one who had doubts about it. He was let into the company of celestials, and then he perceived those things which they spoke; but, when he went by to his fellows, who were spiritual, he was not able to express anything, not even by ideas of thought. He said that the things spoken were most replete with wisdom. He was the London Specatator.* It was also proved that spiritual speech does not fall into the natural speech which is with man.
5593. One spirit is not able to hold conversation with another by means of that speech from ideas and affections, if they are not in like truths and in like affections from truths. For collision immediately occurs, and, indeed, of such a nature that the one must needs be carried away by the other, according to the ideas and their affections. Those who are of differing religion cannot [converse together] at all; neither angels with infernals at all. Such speech is most beautiful in heaven, because it proceeds from the whole angel and from all and every single one of those things which constitute him; because an angel is his own truth and his own good: thus, the speech is of such a form as belongs to angels. They make one. There, is the speech of love and charity. In hell, is the speech of hatred and spite, or the delight of adultery; and this is altogether external without anything internal. Few are in this speech, because there is contrariety: also for the reason that few in the world have thought rationally and spiritually, from truths and goods themselves.
Heaven and Hell
266. What the wisdom of the angels is can be inferred from the fact that they are in the light of heaven, and the light of heaven in its essence is Divine truth or Divine wisdom; and this light enlightens at the same time their inner sight, or sight of the mind, and their outer sight, or sight of the eyes. (That the light of heaven is Divine truth or Divine wisdom may be seen above, n. 126-133.) The angels are also in heavenly heat, which in its essence is Divine good or Divine love, and from that they have an affection and longing to become wise. (That the heat of heaven is Divine good or Divine love may be seen above, n. 133-140.) That the angels are in wisdom, even to the extent that they may be called wisdoms, follows from the fact that their thoughts and affections all flow in accordance with the heavenly form, and this form is the form of Divine wisdom; also that their interiors, which are recipients of wisdom, are arranged in that form. (That the thoughts and affections of angels flow in accordance with the form of heaven, and consequently their intelligence and wisdom, may he seen above, n. 201-212.)  That the angels have supereminent wisdom is shown also by the fact that their speech is the speech of wisdom, for it flows directly and spontaneously from thought, and their thought from their affection, thus their speech is thought from affection in outward form; consequently there is nothing to withdraw them from the Divine influx, and nothing from without such as enters into the speech of man from other thoughts. (That the speech of angels is the speech of their thought and affection may be seen above, n. 234-235.) That the angels have such wisdom is in accord with the fact that all things that they behold with their eyes and perceive by their senses agree with their wisdom, since they are correspondences of it, and thus the objects perceived are representative forms of the things that constitute their wisdom. (That all things seen in the heavens are correspondences with the interiors of angels and representations of their wisdom may be seen above, n. 170-182.)  Furthermore, the thoughts of angels are not limited and contracted by ideas from space and time, as human thoughts are, for spaces and times belong to nature, and the things that belong to nature withdraw the mind from spiritual things, and deprive intellectual sight of its proper range. (That the ideas of angels are apart from time and space, and thus less limited than human ideas, may be seen above, n. 162-169 and 191-199.) Again, the thoughts of angels are neither brought down to earthly and material things, nor interrupted by anxieties about the necessities of life; thus they are not withdrawn by such things from the delights of wisdom, as the thoughts of men in the world are; for all things come to them gratuitously from the Lord; they are clothed gratuitously, are fed gratuitously, are housed gratuitously (n. 181-190), and besides this they receive delights and pleasures in the degree of their reception of wisdom from the Lord. These things have been said to make clear why it is that angels have so great wisdom.#
THE CONJUNCTION OF THE BODY AND THE SPIRIT IN MAN IS THROUGH THE MOTIONS OF HIS HEART AND LUNGS, AND A SEPARATION TAKES PLACE WHEN THESE MOTIONS CEASE.
That this may be comprehended it is necessary for some things to be premised which may as it were bear a torch in advance. The truth will appear from the following propositions:
1. The spirit of man is equally a man.
2. It has equally a heart and pulsation therefrom, and lungs and respiration therefrom.
3. The pulsation of its heart and the respiration of its lungs flow into the pulsation of the heart and the respiration of the lungs with man in the world.
4. The life of the body, which is natural, exists and subsists through that influx, and ceases by its removal, thus by the separation.
5. Man then from natural becomes spiritual.
1. The spirit of man is equally a man.
Of this you will find many proofs in the work on Heaven and Hell (n. 73-77, 311-316, 445-452, 461-469); also that every man as to his interiors is a spirit (n. 432-444). To this it may be added, that everything spiritual is in its essence man, thus everything of love and wisdom that proceeds from the Lord, for this is spiritual. Everything spiritual, or everything that proceeds from the Lord, is man because the Lord Himself, who is the God of the universe, is Man, and from Him nothing can proceed except what is like, for the Divine is not changeable in itself and is not extended, and that which is not extended, wherever it may be, is such as it is. From this is the Divine omnipresence. Man's conception of an angel, of a spirit, and of himself after death, as something like ether or air without a human body, comes from the conception of the sensual learned, which is derived from the term spirit, as meaning the breath of the mouth, also from their being invisible, and never evident to the sense of sight; for the sensual think solely from the sensual-corporeal and from what is material, and also from certain passages of the Word not spiritually understood. Yet they know from the Word that although the Lord was a man as to flesh and bones, still He became invisible to the disciples, and passed through closed doors. They know also from the Word that angels have been seen by many as men, who did not assume a human form, but they manifested themselves in their own form before the eyes of their spirits which were then opened. That man, therefore, may no longer remain in a fallacious idea respecting spirits and angels and his own soul after death, it, has pleased the Lord to open the sight of my spirit, and to permit me to converse face to face with angels and men that have died, and to observe them and touch them, and to say many things about the unbelief and fallacies of men who are still living. With these I have had daily association from the year 1744 to the present time, a period of nineteen years. From all this it can be seen that the spirit of man is equally a man.
 2. The spirit of man has equally a heart and pulsation therefrom, and lungs and respiration therefrom.
This shall first be confirmed by experience, and afterwards by reason. By experience:-The angelic heaven is divided into two kingdoms, one called celestial and the other called spiritual. The celestial kingdom is in love to the Lord, and the spiritual kingdom is in wisdom from that love. Heaven is thus divided because love and wisdom in the Lord and from the Lord are two distinct things, and yet are united; for they are distinct as heat and light from the sun are, as has been said above. The angels of the celestial kingdom, because they are in love to the Lord, have relation to the heart of heaven; and the spiritual angels, because they are in wisdom from that love have relation to the lungs of heaven; for the whole heaven, as has been said above, is in the Lord's sight as one man. Moreover, the influx of the celestial kingdom into the spiritual kingdom is like the influx in man of the heart into the lungs. Thus there is a universal correspondence of heaven with these two motions, that of the heart and that of the lungs, in every one. I have also been permitted to learn from the angels that their arteries have a pulsation from the heart, and that they breathe the same as men in the world do; also that with them the pulsations vary with the states of love, and the respiration with the states of wisdom. They themselves have touched their wrists, and have told me so, and I have often perceived the respiration of their mouth.
[] As the entire heaven is divided into societies according to the affections which belong to love, and as all wisdom and intelligence is according to these affections, so each society has its peculiar respiration distinct from the respiration of any other society, likewise its peculiar and distinct pulsation of the heart; therefore no one can enter from one society into another that is separated from it, nor can any one descend from a higher heaven into a lower, or ascend from a lower into a higher, without causing the heart to labor and the lungs to be oppressed; least of all can any one ascend from hell into heaven; if he ventures to ascend he pants like one in the agony of death, or like a fish lifted from the water into the air.
[] The most general difference in respiration and pulsation is according to the idea of God, for from that idea the differences of love and of wisdom therefrom spring; and for this reason a nation of one religion cannot approach nations of another religion. I have seen that Christians could not approach Mohammedans on account of the respiration. The most easy and gentle breathing is enjoyed by those who have the idea that God is Man; and from the Christian world those who have the idea that the Lord is the God of heaven; while those who deny His Divinity, as the Socinians and Arians do, have a hard and rough breathing. As the pulsation makes one with the love of the will, and the respiration makes one with the wisdom of the understanding, therefore those who are about to come into heaven are introduced into angelic life by harmonious respirations; and this is effected in various ways; and from this they come into interior perceptions and into heavenly freedom.
[] By reason:-The spirit of a man is not a substance that is separate from his viscera, organs, and members, but it cleaves to them in close conjunction; for the spiritual goes along with every fiber of these from outermosts to innermosts; and thus with every fiber and filament of the heart and lungs; consequently, when the bond between man's body and spirit is loosed the spirit is in a form like that in which the man was before; there is only a separation of spiritual substance from material. For this reason the spirit has a heart and lungs the same as the man in the world, and for the same reason it has like senses and like motions, and also speech; and there can be no senses or motions or speech without heart and lungs. Spirits also have atmospheres, but spiritual. How greatly, then, are those deceived who assign
to the soul a special seat somewhere in the brain or in the heart, for the soul of man, which is to live after death, is his spirit.
 3. This pulsation of its heart and the respiration of its lungs flow into the pulsation of the heart and the respiration of the lungs with man in the world.
This, too, must be confirmed by experience and afterwards by reason. By experience:-It is not known that during his life in the world man has a double respiration of the lungs, and a double pulsation of the heart; because it is not known that man in regard to his interiors is a spirit, and that a spirit is equally a man. But it has been granted to perceive sensibly that these two motions exist continually in man, and that these two motions of the spirit flow into the two motions of the body. I was once admitted into these motions when certain spirits were with me, who from a strong power of persuasion were able to deprive the understanding of the faculty of thinking and at the same time to take away the ability of breathing. That this might do me no harm I was brought into the respiration of my spirit, which I then plainly felt to be harmonious with the respiration of the angels of heaven. And from this it was clear that heaven in general and every angel there in particular breathes; also that so far as the understanding suffers, the respiration also suffers; for the power to persuade that is possessed by some evil spirits in the spiritual world at the same time suffocates, consequently this power is called suffocative in reference to the body, and destructive in reference to the mind. On one occasion it was also granted to the angels to control my respiration, and to diminish and gradually withdraw the respiration of my body until only the respiration of my spirit remained, which I then sensibly perceived. Moreover, I have been in the respiration of my spirit whenever I have been in a state like that of spirits and angels, and whenever I have been raised up into heaven; and oftentimes I have been in the spirit and not in the body, at other times both in the body and in the spirit. See the work on Heaven and Hell (n. 449) for an account of the removal of the animation of the lungs and of the body, while the animation of my spirit remained. [] By reason:-From these living experiences it can be seen that since every man enjoys a double respiration, one within the other, he has the power to think rationally and also spiritually from his understanding, and by this is distinguished from the beasts; also that as to his understanding he can be enlightened, raised up into heaven, and respire with the angels, and thus be reformed and regenerated. Moreover, where there is an external there must be an internal, and the internal must be in every action and in every sensation; the external supplies the general and the internal the particular, and where there is no general there is no particular. For this reason there is in man both an external and an internal systolic and animative motion, and external which is natural an internal which is spiritual. And thus the will together with the understanding can produce bodily motions, and the understanding with the will can produce bodily sensations. General and particular pulsations and respirations exist also in beasts but with them both the external and internal are natural, while with man the external is natural and the internal is spiritual. In a word, such as the understanding is such is the respiration, because such is the spirit of man; and the spirit is what thinks from the understanding and wills from the will. That these spiritual operations may flow into the body and enable man to think and will naturally, the respiration and pulsation of the spirit must be conjoined to the respiration and pulsation of the body, and there must be an influx of one into the other; otherwise no transfer is effected.
 4. The life of the body, which is natural, exists and subsists through that influx, and ceases by its removal, thus by the separation.
A man after death is just as much a man as before death, except that after death he becomes a spirit-man, for the reason that his spiritual is adjoined to his natural, or the substantial of the spirit to the material of the body, so fitly and unitedly that there is not a filament or fiber or smallest thread of them in which the human of the spirit is not in union with the human body. And as the life of the whole and the life of the parts depend solely on these two most general motions, the systolic motion of the heart and the respiratory motion of the lungs, it follows that when these motions in the body cease, natural things, which axe material, are separated from the spiritual things, which are substantial, because they are no longer able to do the same work together; and in consequence the spiritual which is the essential active withdraws from the particulars acted upon, which are natural, and thus the man becomes another man. This, therefore, is the death of man and this is his resurrection, about which some things from living experience may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell (n. 445-452, 453-460, 461-469).
[] It is known that when respiration ceases man seems to be dead, and yet man is not dead until the motion of the heart also ceases, and this commonly takes place later. That until this the man is not dead is shown by the life of infants in the womb, and by the life of adults in swoon or suffocation, in which the heart maintains its contractions and dilations, while the lungs are at rest, and yet they live, although without sensation and motion, thus without any consciousness of life. The reason of this is that the respiration of the spirit then continues, but there is no corresponding respiration of the body, and thus no reciprocation between the two vital motions, that of the heart and that of the lungs; and without correspondence and reciprocation there is no sensitive life, neither is there any action. What is true of the natural life of man's body is true also of the spiritual life of his mind. If the will and understanding, or love and wisdom, do not act conjointly, no rational operation can take place. If the understanding or wisdom withdraws, the will with its love becomes as it were dead; nevertheless, it continues to live, though with no consciousness of itself, so long as the understanding only ceases to act, as takes place when memory fails. But it is otherwise when the will or love recedes; then all is over with the mind of man, as all is over with him when the heart stops beating. That the separation of the spirit from the body generally takes place on the second day after the last struggle I have been permitted to know from the fact that I have talked with some deceased persons on the third day after their decease, and they were then spirits.
 5. Man then from natural becomes spiritual.
A natural man is wholly different from a spiritual man, and a spiritual man from a natural man; the difference is so great that they cannot be given together. One who does not know what the spiritual is in its essence may believe that the spiritual is only a purer natural, which in man is called the rational; but the spiritual is above the natural, and as distinct from it as the light of midday from the evening shadow in the time of autumn. The distinction and the difference can be known only to one who is in both worlds, the natural and the spiritual, and who can change alternately from one to the other, and be in one and then in the other, and by reflection can look at one from the other. From this privilege, which has been granted to me, I have learned what the natural man is and what the spiritual man is who is a spirit. That this may be known it shall be described briefly. In all things of his thought and speech, and in all things of his will and action, the natural man has as his subject matter, space, time and quantity; with him these are fixed and permanent, and without them he can have no idea of thought and speech from it, and no affection of the will and action from it. The spiritual man or the spirit does not have these as subjects, but only as objects.
[] The reason is that in the spiritual world the objects are altogether similar to those in the natural world; there are lands, plains, fields, gardens and forests, houses containing rooms, and in them all useful things; moreover, there are garments for women and for men, such as are in the world; there are tables, food, and drinks, such as are in the world; there are also animals both gentle and destructive; there are spaces and times, and numbers and measures. All these things have such a resemblance to the things that are in the world that to the eye they cannot be distinguished, and yet all these are appearances of the wisdom belonging to the understanding of angels, and perceptions of loves belonging to their wills; for these objects are created in a moment by the Lord, and in a moment are dissipated. They are permanent or not permanent according to the constancy or inconstancy of the spirits or angels in the things of which they are the appearances. This is why these things are merely objects of their thoughts and affections, while their subjects are those things of which these are the appearances, which, as has been said, are such things as relate to wisdom and love, thus spiritual things. For example, when they see spaces they do not think of them from space; when they see gardens containing trees, fruits, shrubs, flowers, and seeds, they do not think of these from their appearance but according to the things from which these appearances spring; and so in all other cases.
[] In consequence of this the thoughts of the spiritual, and their affections also, are wholly different from the thoughts and affections of the natural, and so different that they transcend natural ideas and do not fall into them except in some measure into the interior rational sight, and this in no other way than by withdrawals or removals of quantities from qualities. This shows clearly that the angels have a wisdom that is incomprehensible and also ineffable to the natural man. As their thoughts are such so their speech is such, and so different from the speech of men that they do not agree in a single expression. The same is true of their writing; although as to its letters this resembles the writing of men in the world, no man in the world can understand it. Every consonant in their writing expresses a distinct meaning, every vowel a distinct affection. The vowels are not written, but pointed. Their manual employments, which are innumerable, and the duties of their callings, likewise differ from the employments and duties of natural men in the world, and cannot therefore be described in the terms of human language.
[] From these few instances it can be seen that the natural and the spiritual differ from each other like shadow and light. Nevertheless, there are, various differences; there are some who are sensual-spiritual, some who are rational-spiritual, and some celestial-spiritual, also there are the spiritual evil and the spiritual good. The differences are according to the affections and the thoughts therefrom, and the appearances are according to the affections. From all this it is clear that man from natural becomes spiritual as soon as the. lungs and heart of the body cease to be moved, and by this means the material body is separated from the spiritual body.
5986. It is worth my mentioning that it has happened many times and thereby been proved to me that no one person's thought, speech, will, or action - either in heaven or in hell - originates in the person himself but comes from others, so that ultimately every individual is dependent on the all-embracing inflow of life from the Lord. When I have heard others saying that nothing of a subordinate's thought or speech originated in himself, yet the subordinate imagined that it did come solely from himself, I have been allowed on many occasions to talk to those entering the subordinate. Whenever they would argue that their own thought and speech originated in themselves unlike a subordinate's - and because they really thought this was so - I have also been allowed to tell them that their idea is false. I have told them that they, exactly like a subordinate, derived their thought and speech from others. To prove the point I was allowed to talk to the spirits entering them; and when these spirits professed much the same, I was allowed to talk in turn to the ones entering them, and so on in unbroken sequence. This proved that each
individual's thought and speech came from others. The experience made the spirits highly indignant, for each of them wants his thought and speech to originate in himself. But because the experience served to teach them the truth of the matter, they were told that the whole of their thought, and of their will too, is something that comes into them, for the reason that there is but one life alone, which is the source of the life those mental powers possess. That life flows in from the Lord, employing an amazing form, the heavenly form; it flows not only into all people universally but also into each individual specifically. Variation occurs in every case, determined by the form each subordinate recipient possesses, in the measure that the form agrees or does not agree with the heavenly one. From all this one may also see what the situation is with man, who will be dealt with in what follows where influx is the subject.
5595. It must be known, moreover, that spiritual speech is in many expressions of human speech, principally those which belong to sensation, as, for example, when seeing is spoken about understanding; about perceiving, smelling is said; about tasting, in like manner, but in a grosser sense; that to hear is to obey, and so on. There is a spiritual therein, from the spiritual world. In the words of human speech are many such [cases]; and man is unaware that they are from the spiritual world, because he does not know what the spiritual is, nor what correspondence. The speech of the most ancient people was of such a character. At that time, the speech of words was exceedingly full of such [instances]: at first, [it was] spiritual, afterwards more and more natural, and at length sensual, such as it is at this day. That there was a most ancient speech of ideas and affections, see what [is said] about it in various places.
Spiritual Experiences Minor
4617. How much more perfect are the ideas of thought than the words of speech, may be evident from this: that a man is able to think more things in a moment, than he could utter or describe in an hour. Speech, after death, is distinguished into ideas, and consists of ideas, which, amongst spirits, take the place of words and sound; for sound, amongst spirits, corresponds to thought, which, in itself, is tacit speech, but to spirits it is audible. From hence it is evident of what nature the speech of spirits is; namely, that it is more perfect than human speech, just as thought surpasses verbal speech. It was granted to observe what is its nature, inasmuch as I spoke with spirits, by means of ideas: and when with words at the same time, then did the ideas present much more than the words, and wonderfully filled up the sense. Sometimes, they presented things which could not be uttered in words.
Earths in the Universe
95. By the bird of stone were also represented the inhabitants of that earth who in a strange manner transmute the life of their thoughts and affections into almost no life, concerning which I have heard as follows. There was a certain spirit above my head who spoke with me, and from the sound of his voice it was perceived that he was as it were in a state of sleep. In this state he spoke many things, and with such prudence that if he were awake he could not speak more prudently. It was given to perceive that he was a subject through which angels spoke; and that in that state he perceived and brought forth what they said,# for he spoke nothing but what was true. If anything flowed in from any other source, he admitted it indeed, but did not bring it forth. I questioned him about his state, and he said that this state was to him peaceful, and without any anxiety about the future; and that at the same time he performed uses, whereby he had communication with heaven. It was told me that such spirits in the Greatest Man have reference to the longitudinal sinus in the brain, which lies between its two hemispheres, and there he is in a quiet state, however the brain may be disturbed on both sides. When I was in conversation with this spirit, some spirits introduced themselves toward the fore part of the head, where he was, and pressed upon him; wherefore he withdrew to one side, and gave them place.
The newly arrived spirits conversed with one another; but neither the spirits around me, nor I myself, understood what they were saying. I was instructed by angels that they were spirits from the earth Mars, who were skilled in talking with one another in such manner that the spirits present neither understood nor perceived anything. I wondered that such speech was possible, because all spirits have one kind of speech, which flows from the thought, and consists of ideas, that are heard as words in the spiritual world. It was said that those spirits form in a certain manner ideas expressed by the lips and the face, not intelligible to others, and at the same moment artfully withdraw their thoughts, taking special care that nothing of the affection should manifest itself, because if anything of the affection were perceived, the thought would then be manifest; for the thought flows from the affection, and is as it were in it. I was instructed further that the inhabitants of the earth Mars who place heavenly life in knowledges alone, and not in a life of love, contrived such speech, though not all of them; and that when they become spirits, they retain it. It is these who were signified in particular by the bird of stone; for to present speech by modifications of the countenance and foldings of the lips, with the removal of the affections and withdrawal of the thoughts from others, is to take the soul out of speech, and to render it like a mere image, and by degrees they also become similar.
But although they think that they are not understood by others in what they say among themselves, still angelic spirits perceive each and everything that they speak, for the reason that from them no thought can be concealed. This was also shown them by living experience. I was thinking of this, that the evil spirits of our earth are not affected with shame when they infest others, and this thought flowed in with me from angelic spirits who perceived their speech. These spirits of Mars then acknowledged that this was what they were speaking of among themselves, and they marveled. Moreover, there were many things disclosed by an angelic spirit, both of what they spoke and of what they were thinking, notwithstanding they endeavored to withdraw their thoughts from him. Afterward those spirits flowed in from above into my face, and their influx was felt like a fine striated rain, which was a sign that they were not in any affection of truth and good, since that is represented by what is striated. They then spoke with me plainly, saying that the inhabitants of
their earth speak with one another in like manner. It was then said to them, that this is evil, because in this way they obstruct internals, and recede from them to externals, which they also deprive of their life; and especially because it is not sincere to speak thus. For they who are sincere have no wish to speak nor even to think anything but what others may know, yea all, even the whole heaven. But they who do not wish others to know what they speak, judge concerning others, think evil of them, and well of themselves, and are at length carried by habit so far as to think and speak ill of the church, of heaven, and even of the Lord Himself. It was said that they who love knowledges, and not so much a life according to them, have reference to the interior membrane of the skull in the Greatest Man; but they who accustom themselves to speak without affection, and to draw the thought to themselves and withdraw it from others, have reference to that membrane when it is become bony, because from having some spiritual life they come to have no life.
# That communications are made through spirits sent forth by societies of spirits and angels to other societies, and that these emissary spirits are called subjects (n. 4403, 5856, 5983, 5985-5989).
1763. I have also heard a form of speech that involved many spirits speaking simultaneously. Roaring like waves, it passed into the brain in varying directions. Besides this there is a form of speech existing with certain spirits which has a fourfold rhythm, like the noise and sound of people threshing. These spirits are segregated from others. They induce pain in the head like that caused by the suction of a pump. I have heard some who spoke with a booming voice, yet as though inwardly, inside themselves; but it nevertheless reached my hearing as speech.
 Others whom I heard spoke by belching forth words as if from their belly. These are such as are unwilling to pay any attention to the sense of a thing, but are compelled to speak through others. I have heard some who spoke with a rough sound split in two, so to speak. They came up to my left side beneath the elbow, and also up to my left ear. I have also heard some who could not speak loudly enough to be heard, but were like those who have a heavy cold. They belong to those spirits who, by worming their way into the delights of others, extract their secrets from them for the purpose of doing harm.
 There are spirits, small in stature, who though few in number nevertheless speak like a huge crowd, sounding like thunder. I once heard them overhead and thought there was a large crowd of them, but one of them at that point came to my left side below the arm and spoke in like manner with a voice that thundered. He also moved away and did the same thing. Where such spirits come from will in the Lord's Divine mercy be described elsewhere. But these kinds of speech are quite rare. It is remarkable how these many forms of speech are heard as loudly and clearly by one whose interior organs of hearing have been opened, and also by spirits, as the sounds and speech of men on earth are heard. But by one whose interior organs have not been opened they are not heard at all.
1759. The speech of celestial spirits cannot easily flow into the articulate sounds or words that appertain to man; for it cannot be suited to a word in which there is anything that sounds harshly, or in which there is a rough doubling of consonants, or in which there is an idea that is derived from memory-knowledge; on which account they rarely flow into the speech otherwise than by affections which, like a flowing stream or a gentle breeze, soften the words. The speech of spirits who are intermediate between the celestial and the spiritual is sweet, flowing like the gentlest atmosphere, soothing the recipient organs, and softening the words themselves; it is also rapid and sure. The flow and the pleasantness of the speech come from the fact that the celestial good in their ideas is of this character, and there is nothing in the speech that dissents from the thought. All the sweet harmoniousness in the other life comes from goodness and charity. The speech of the spiritual also is flowing, but is not so soft and gentle. It is chiefly these who speak.
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