Scientific discovery of Spiritual Laws given in Rational Scientific Revelations


Previous Pages

101           CONFIRMATORY PASSAGES IN THE ARCANA 

of the fishes". By -this was represented that to act and teach from good is to conclude innumerable things which belong to truth. [1005610120 treat of the second state in which truths are from good, the multiplication of truths thence and the reception of the Divine Good and the Divine Truth in the Heavens and in the internal of the Church: see also n. 10124, 10125.]

  10129.  Spiritual good is so far good, and hence is so far holy as it has celestial good within it; for this good flows into it, and conceives it, and begets it as a father his son,

  10151.  "And the altar". This signifies the receptivity of the Divine from the Lord in the higher Heavens. ... The Divine that proceeds from the Lord, when received by the Angels makes Heaven; in respect to what is their own the Angels themselves do not make Heaven; but in respect to the Divine which they receive from the Lord. . . . Each one of them acknowledges, believes, and also perceives, that there is nothing of good from himself, but only from the Lord. ... So it is with the Church. In respect to what is their own the men there do not make the Church, but with respect to what is Divine which they receive from the Lord; for every one there who does not acknowledge and believe that all the good of love and the truth of faith are from God, is not of the Church, for he wishes to love God from himself, and to believe in God from himself, which however no one can do. From this also it is evident that the Divine of the Lord makes the Church, as it makes Heaven. Moreover the Church is the Lord's Heaven on earth; consequently the Lord is the all in all in the Church, as He is in Heaven, and there dwells in His own with men, as He does with the Angels in Heaven. Moreover after their life in the world, the men of the Church, who in this way receive what is Divine of the Lord in love and faith, become Angels of Heaven and no others. That the Divine of the Lord makes His kingdom with man, that is Heaven and the Church with him. the Lord also teaches in John: "The Spirit of Truth shall abide with you, and shall be in you, and ye shall know that I am in the Father, and ye in Me, and I in you" (14 : 17, 20). The Spirit of Truth denotes the Divine Truth which proceeds from the Lord, of which it is said

 

102            CONFIRMATORY PASSAGES IN THE ARCANA

 

that it shall abide in you; and afterwards that He is in the Father, and they in. Him, and He in them, whereby is signified that they would be in the Divine of the Lord and the Divine of the Lord in them.

  10184.  He who is in good, which is the state of a regenerate man, shall not return into a state of truth, which is his prior state, namely, during regeneration; for in this state a man is led by means of truth to good, thus partly by himself; but in the latter or posterior state, namely when he has been regenerated, man is led by good, that is through good by the Lord.

  10194.  No truth is possible with a man unless he is in good.

  10201.  The light of truth with man is altogether according to the state of his love; in proportion as the love is enkindled, the truth shines, for the good of love is the vital fire itself, and the truth of faith is the intellectual light itself which is intelligence and wisdom. These two advance with equal steps. By intelligence and wisdom is not  meant the capacity to think and reason on every subject, ..-. but there is meant the capacity to see and perceive the truths and goods which are of faith and charity and of love to  the Lord. This capacity exists solely with those who are in enlightenment from the Lord, and they are so far in enlightenment as they are in love to Him and in charity towards the neighbor. For the Lord enters through good, thus through the love and charity that are with man, and leads into truths corresponding to the good. ... These things have been said that it may be known that the faith of every one is such as is his love; and that it may be understood what is meant by truth coming into its light when love comes into its clearness, which things are signified by burning the incense eVery morning when the lamps were dressed.

  10210.  The good of innocence consists in acknowledging that all truths and goods are from the Lord, and nothing from man's own; thus it consists in being willing to be led by the Lord, and not by self.

  10215.  "And Jehovah spake unto Moses saying". That this signifies enlightenment through the Word from the Lord, is evident from the signification of speaking, when by Jehovah to Moses, as being enlightenment from the

 

103            COMPILED BY THE REV. THEODORE PITCAIRN

 

Lord through the Word; for by speaking is signified influx, perception, and instruction, consequently enlightenment,  for  enlightenment  is  influx,  perception,  and instruction from the Lord when the Word is read.

  10218.  "Then they shall give- every one an expiation of his soul to Jehovah in numbering them". That this signifies purification and liberation from evil through the acknowledgement and faith that all the truths and goods of faith and love, and their setting in order and disposing, are from the Lord, and nothing from man.

  10227.  "The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less, from the half of a shekel, to give to Jehovah". This signifies that all, of whatever ability they may be, must ascribe all things of truth from good to the Lord. ... The case herein is this. All have the capacity to understand and be wise; but the reason one person is wiser than another is that they do not in like manner ascribe to the Lord all things of intelligence and wisdom, which are all things of truth and good. They who ascribe all to the Lord are wiser than the rest, because all things of truth and good, which make wisdom, flow in from Heaven, that is, from the Lord there. The ascription of all things to the Lord opens the interiors of the man towards Heaven, for thus it is acknowledged that nothing of truth and good is from himself; and in proportion as this is acknowledged, the love of self departs, and with the love of self the thick darkness from falsities and evils.

In the same proportion also the man comes into innocence, and into love and faith to the Lord, from which comes conjunction with the Divine, influx thence and enlightenment. . . . By the capacity to be wise is not meant the capacity to reason about truths and goods from sciences, nor the capacity to confirm what one pleases, but the capacity to discern what is true and good, to choose what is suitable and to apply it to the uses of life. They who ascribe all things to the Lord discern, choose, and apply; while those who do not ascribe to the Lord, but to themselves, know merely how to reason about truths and goods; nor do they see any thing except what is from others; not from reason, but from the activity of the memory. And as they cannot look into truths themselves, they stand outside, and confirm whatever they receive, whether it be true or false. They

 

104              CONFIRMATORY PASSAGES TN THE ARCANA

 

who do this in a learned way from sciences are believed by the world to be wiser than others. [See also n. 10230.] 10234.  "And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying". This signifies perceptivity out of enlightenment through the Word, from the Lord.

  10270.  The  Lord  inflows  immediately  from  His Divine Human into the celestial good which is of the inmost Heaven. The Lord inflows from the Divine Human into the spiritual good which is of the second Heaven, and also  mediately  through  celestial  good. And the Lord inflows from the Divine Human into the spiritual natural good, which is of the ultimate Heaven, and again also mediately. It is said also mediately, because the Lord not only flows into the goods of these heavens mediately, but also immediately.

  10272.  It is called a representative of the Lord in goods and truths and in ministering goods and truths, and in all things of worship, because the goods and truths which are represented are so far goods and truths as there is in them the Divine of the Lord. For all the goods and truths which are with man and Angel are from the Lord; without life from the Lord in them they are dead things, and even evil, for the end is the inmost of man, because it  is the soul  of  all  things  in him.  From  this it can be seen what is meant by the representation of the Lord in goods and truths, and in their ministering ones. By ministering goods and truths are meant the goods and truths which are in the natural or external man, which are called cognitions and scientifics; for it is these into which the internal man looks, and from which he chooses those which act as confirmations, and which are in agreement with the life of his affections, or with his love; and because they are thus subordinate they are called ministering. There are also goods and truths again ministering to these, which are called sensual scientifics,

  10276.  All influx and presence of the Lord takes place immediately, and in the lower Heavens also mediately through celestial good, which is the good of the inmost Heaven. Therefore in so far as the goods of the lower Heavens contain and store up within them celestial good, which is the good of love to the Lord, so far they are goods. ... It is these representations of which it is said

 

105         COMPILED BY THE REV. THEODORE PITCAIRN 

 

that no eye hath seen such things; and if anything were told of them it would exceed human belief. ... From all this an. intelligent person is able to know that the Word is most holy, and that its literal sense is holy from its internal sense, but that apart from this it is not holy. . . . Therefore they who lay stress on the sense of the letter of the Word alone, and neither have nor procure  for themselves from the Word, Doctrine that is in agreement with its internal sense, can be drawn into any heresies whatever. It is from this that the Word is called by such the book of heresies. The very Doctrine from the Word by all means must give light and guidance. This very Doctrine is taught by the internal sense, and he who knows this Doctrine, has the internal sense of the Word.

  10299.  "An ointment the work of a perfumer". This signifies from the influx and operation of the Divine of the Lord into each and all things. ... How it is to be understood that there must be influx and operation into each and all things of worship shall also be briefly told. It is  believed  by those  who  are  not  acquainted  with the arcana of Heaven that worship is from man, because it proceeds from the thought and affection that are with him; but the worship from man is not worship, consequently the confessions, adorations, and prayers which are from man, are not confessions, adorations, and prayers which are heard and received by the Lord; but they must be from the Lord Himself with man. That this is so is known to the Church, for it teaches that nothing that is good proceeds from man, but that all good is from Heaven, that is  from  the  Divine  there. ... When a man is in genuine worship, then the Lord flows into the goods and truths which are with him, and raises them to Himself, and with them the man, in so far and in such a manner as he is in them. This elevation does not appear to the man unless he is in the genuine affection of truth and good, and in the knowledge, acknowledgement, and faith that everything good comes from above from the Lord. That it is so may be comprehended even by those who are wise from the world, for they know from their learning that natural influx, which is called by them physical influx, is not possible, but only spiritual influx. ,.. That it is so has frequently been given to experience; for it has been given

106                 CONFIRMATORY PASSAGES IN THE ARCANA

 

to  perceive   the   very   influx,   the   calling   forth   of   the truths that were with me, their applications to the objects of prayer, the affection of good that was adjoined, and the elevation itself. Nevertheless a man must not let down his hands and await influx, for this would be to act like an effigy devoid of life; in spite of all he must think, will, and act, as of himself, and yet must ascribe to the Lord everything of thought of truth and of endeavor of good: by doing so there is implanted in him from the Lord the capability of receiving Him and the influx from Him. For man was created no otherwise than to be a receptacle of the Divine; and the capability of receiving the Divine is formed in no other way. When this capability has been formed, he afterwards has no other will than that it should be so; for he loves the influx from the Lord, and is averse to any working from himself; because the influx from the Lord is the influx of good, whereas any working from himself is the working of evil. In such a state are all the Angels in Heaven; wherefore by Angels in the Word are signified  truths  and  goods  which  are  from  the  Lord. because the Angels are receptions of these.

  10324.  The Word in the letter cannot be apprehended except by means of Doctrine made from the Word by one who is enlightened. For the sense of the letter of the Word has been accommodated to the apprehension of even simple men; and therefore they need Doctrine out of the Word for a lamp.

  10330.  [A long and important number on enlightenment and influx from which we quote only the following.] But man looks inward not from self, but from the Lord; and this is called looking upwards, because in respect to his interiors which are of the will and understanding he is then raised from the Lord to Heaven, and thus to the Lord. Moreover the interiors are actually raised, and are then actually withdrawn from the body and from the world. When this is done the interiors of a man come actually into Heaven, and into its light and heat. From this he has influx and enlightenment. ... As the man is then among the Angels, there is communicated to him from them, that is, through them from the Lord, the understanding of truth and the affection of good. This communication is what is called influx and enlightenment.

 

107             COMPILED BY THE REV. THEODORE PITCAIRN 

 

But be it known that influx and enlightenment take place according to the capability of reception on the part of man, and the capability of reception is according to the love of what is true and good.

  10400.  [A long and important number on the nature of the Word from which we quote the following.] From all this it is evident that by the words "As for this Moses, that man that made us to come up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what hath become of him", is signified that it is altogether unknown what other Divine truth there is in the Word, which raises man from what is external into what is internal, and makes the Church, than that which stands forth in the sense of the letter. ... The Doctrine which must be for a lamp is what the internal sense teaches, thus it is the internal sense itself.

  10406.  "And  formed it with  a graving tool". This signifies from their own intelligence. . . . To prepare a false doctrinal from one's own intelligence is effected by the application of the sense of the letter of the Word in favor of the loves of self and of the world. - . . The work of the hands denotes that which is from man's own, thus that which is from his own understanding and his own will, and those are of his own of both understanding and will, which are of the love of self, this is the origin of all the falsities in the Church. As all falsities are from what is man's own, and by the work of the hands is signified what is from this, it was therefore forbidden to move an iron, an axe, or a graving tool upon the stones of which the altar was built.

  10505.  Be it known that all things that have been written in the internal man have been written by the Lord, and that the things there written make the very spiritual and celestial life of man; also that each and all things that have been written there, have been written

  10548.  All instruction concerning the truths and goods of the Church and of worship are given by means of the external of the Word. ... In the external of the Word all  internal  things  are  together.  ...  Moreover  all  the doctrinal  things  of the  Church  that  are of service to worship are given by means of the external of the Word; but they are given only to those who are in enlightenment

 

108                CONFIRMATORY PASSAGES IN THE ARCANA

 

from the Lord when reading the Word, for then light flows into them from Heaven through the internal sense.

  10551.  Those who when reading the Word are in enlightenment, see it from within, for their internal is open, etc.

  10584.  Those are said to see the back parts of Jehovah and not His face, who believe and adore the Word, but only its external which is the sense of the letter, and do not penetrate more interiorly, as do those who have been enlightened, and who make for themselves Doctrine out of the Word, by which they may see its genuine sense, thus its iniprinr spnsp

 

109

 

DE HEMELSCHE LEER

EXTRACT FROM: THE ISSUE FOR MAY-JULY 1931

 

REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

   EDITORIAL BY THE REV. ERNST PFEIFFER.

 

  According to Dr. Acton's opinion the purpose of DE HEMELSCHE LEER is "to show: (1) That since the Writings are the Word, it logically follows that those Writings are not the internal sense of the Word but themselves have an internal sense; and (2) That this internal sense is the Heavenly Doctrine and is made manifest to men by the doctrines formulated by the Church" (p. 3). This is what the reviewer has taken to be the purpose of DE HEMELSCHE LEER. The real purpose of DE HEMELSCHE LEER as indicated on the title-page and clearly stated in the first two pages of the first number, is to show: First, that the Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg are the Third Testament of the Word of God, and that all that is said in the DOCTRINE CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE with reference to the Word applies not only to the Old and the New Testament, but also to the Third Testament; and secondly, that that which is taught in the Latin Word concerning the Doctrine of the Church applies to the genuine Doctrine which in the course of the Church's regeneration is born in it from the Lord. That in the purpose as supposed by the reviewer, all that which is essential in DE HEMELSCHE LEER has been totally overlooked, will clearly appear in the course of the following remarks.

 The foundation from which DE HEMELSCHE LEER has drawn its stated purpose and on which this purpose has been based is nothing else than the literal sense of the Latin Word itself. It has been shown in DE HEMELSCHE LEER that a genuine vision is not arrived at "by logical conclusions", because in the coming into existence of a genuine

 

110  REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

vision the rational is not consulted; a genuine vision comes from the Lord alone, it is a revelation from perception. It is precisely from the realization of this truth, namely that man cannot in any way understand the Word, and therefore not the Latin Word either, unless he receive from the Lord a genuine vision or a true understanding of that Word, that DE HEMELSCHE LEER started in the development of its new position. This has been expressly stated in DE HEMELSCHE LEER. It is said there (First Fascicle, p. 28) that when reading the twentieth chapter of Genesis in the ARCANA COELESTIA it became clear to us that in the Church a Doctrine must be born from the Lord, and that without such a Doctrine the Church will not continue to exist. The new light came to us when we read there in the twentieth chapter of Genesis "that the Doctrine is spiritual out of celestial origin, but not out of rational origin" (A.C. 2496, 2510 and the entire chapter), "that then the Doctrine is perfect" (n. 2497), "that the Doctrine would be none if the rational were consulted, ... and that no Doctrine can exist from the rational" (n. 2516), "that as the Lord is the Word, He is the Doctrine also, for another Doctrine, which itself is Divine, does not exist" (n. 2533), and in the twenty-second chapter: "that the Lord is that Doctrine itself" (n. 2859).

From everything that the Latin Testament teaches concerning the Word and  concerning the Doctrine of the Church out of the Word, and concerning the mutual relation between the Word and the Doctrine out of the Word, it is evident that the Church indeed receives from the Lord a universal revelation or a Word, which serves the Church as  an external source of truth and as an indispensable foundation for all its thought, but that nevertheless by merely taking direct cognizance of that Word, therefore by an apparent influx of that truth from without, it can never enter into the possession of genuine truth, and that therefore in the Church, if it is to be truly a Church, the apparent influx of the truth out of the Word from without  must  always  become  an  actual  influx  of the genuine truth from within, that is out of goad from the Lord Himself. This truth is based on the fundamental law that a natural influx or an influx from the natural into the spiritual is contrary to order and therefore impossible,

 

 

111            REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

and that all actual influx is a spiritual influx or an influx of the spiritual into the natural.

This truth becomes clear if one realizes that the Word in its letter, or such as it has been laid down in the natural, is the Word in ultimates, and that the Word in firsts is the living Divine Human itself. The Word in ultimates is the scientifics present with man out of the letter of the Latin Word, the Word in firsts with man is the good out of the Lord in the mind of the regenerated man. The genuine goods and the genuine truths, however, such as they live in the regenerated men of the Church, come into existence in between, when man by his cooperation, as from himself, makes it possible for the Lord to operate from firsts through ultimates the genuine spiritual and celestial things with him. For the Lord with man operates in no other way than from firsts through ultimates, seeing an operation only through ultimates is impossible; the ultimates (that is the scientifics out of the letter of the Latin Word) are indeed an indispensable basis for the Divine operation, but the actual life is not in ultimates but in firsts; the ultimates exist only for the sake of the mediates which on the basis of the ultimates must come into existence from the firsts. The mediates are the genuine goods and truths of the man of the Church, and the concept that man by direct cognizance of the literal sense of the Latin Word can enter into possession of genuine living truths, is therefore evidently contrary to this irrefragable law.

The Word in ultimates with man separated from the Word in firsts and in mediates is as a body without a soul and without a spirit. This applies as much to the Third Testament as to the other Testaments. l'or by direct cognizance of the Third Testament, even of its most abstract discourses on the essence of Divine and spiritual things, man enters only into the possession of scientifics which he takes up into his memory.

That the entire letter even of the Latin Testament with regard to the man who takes direct cognizance of it, consists of nothing but natural scientifics, appears clearly from the following passages in the ARCANA COELESTIA: "All the scientific with man is natural, because it is in his natural man, even the scientific concerning spiritual and celestial things" (n. 4967); "The scientifics into which the things of faith and charity can be applied are very many, such as

 

112  REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

all the scientifics of the Church,  ...  all the  scientifics which are true, about correspondences, about representatives, about significatives, about influx, about order, about intelligence and wisdom, about the affections, yea all truths of interior and exterior nature, both visible and invisible, because these correspond to spiritual truths" (n. 5313). From this it is evident that the truths of the letter of the Latin Word are not spiritual truths, but that they correspond therewith; that therefore the distance there between is immeasurable, as between the earth and the sky, and that there exists no relation whatever between them but that of correspondence.

  From the foregoing it is evident that also the New Church in order to become truly a Church, besides the universal revelation of the Latin Word, which has been given to it as a basis in the natural for its thought, with regard to the whole and with regard to each separate truth of it, must also receive a pure understanding of it, from within from the Lord; or that the universal revelation of the Latin Word in the Church with regard to each separate truth must be conjoined with an individual revelation of genuine truth  by  perception  from  the Lord. This is evidently meant by the words in the work ON THE WHITE HORSE, "that the quality of the Word in the internal sense is  seen by no  one but the Lord Himself,  and those to whom He reveals it" (n. 1).

  That the letter of the Latin Word such as "man receives it by  direct cognizance merely  from  without is  not the spiritual sense itself, but that the spiritual sense has been laid  down  there  in the  natural,  the  Latin Word itself teaches. We read in the APOCALYPSE EXPLAINED, n. 1061: "This is the natural sense out of the spiritual sense" (cf. DE HEMELSCHE LEER, First Fasc., p. 100); and in n. 8 of the same work: "By the things that He signified are meant those that are in the sense of the letter, because all these signify, while the things that are signified are those that are contained in the internal sense. For all things in the Word are significative of spiritual things, which are in the internal sense. ... With man this is changed into the natural, such as is expressed in the sense of the letter. . . That which comes out of Heaven can be presented to man in no other way; for the spiritual falls into its corresponding

 

113                REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON 

 

natural when it descends out of the spiritual world into the natural". This truth has for a long time been known in the Church, at any rate as a literal teaching from the Latin Word, as appears from the passages quoted by the reviewer himself from NEW CHURCH TIDINGS and NEW CHURCH LIFE. But although it was thus known that the rational ideas which man by direct cognizance derives from the Latin Word, are in no way spiritual-rational, but only natural rational ideas, still it has not been realized that the distance from those natural-rational ideas to the genuine spiritual rational ideas is as immeasurable as the distance from the sensual ideas of the Old Testament to genuine spiritual ideas. For just as the sensual ideas are entirely in the natural, so too are the natural-rational ideas: the genuine spiritual- rational ideas however, are never anywhere else than in the spiritual Heaven itself, that is, in the living Spirit of the Lord. The distance from the earth to the stars in the firmament is immeasurable, whether man stands in the deepest valley of the earth or on the highest mountain; it makes no difference whatever. So too it is evident that man merely by direct cognizance of the Latin Word cannot possibly arrive at spiritual-rational  ideas;  for  spiritual-rational ideas  come  from  within  out  of  the  Lord.  Spiritual-rational ideas are the truth of good with the regenerated man. Spiritual-rational ideas are the proper, living light of the second Heaven; they are never anywhere else than with the Angels of the second Heaven and with those men who by regeneration are conjoined with those Angels.

  It is the proper characteristic of genuine truth that it is the form of genuine good and inseparably makes  one with it. The Good that makes one with the Truths of the letter of the Latin Word is the infinite Divine Good of the Divine Human of the Lord; no man, yea no Angel can ever partake of that Good, seeing it is above the Heavens, and therefore no man can ever partake of those Truths either. But the genuine human good or the good of the Angels comes into existence from within out of the Lord, and the genuine truths of man are the truths of that good. It is therefore clear beyond doubt that the Truths of the letter of the Latin Word are not the truths of the man of the Church, but that as to their essence, they are infinite Truths, inconceivable for man, and that the truths of

 

114  REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

man come from within, namely out of the good with him from the Lord. That the truths of the letter of the Latin Word are not the truths of the Doctrine of the New Church, but that the latter differ from the former will be confirmed in what follows by a literal quotation from the ARCANA COELESTIA. We shall now first show that the truths out of the letter, when by direct cognizance they are taken up, even stand in a certain relation to the evils of the proprium of man; for the Lord in the beginning even makes use of these evils .to bring the truths out of the letter into the memory, as into the gates of the mind or as into a court of the mind.

Concerning this we read in the ARCANA COELESTIA: "When man is being regenerated he first learns truths out of the Word or the Doctrine, and lays them down in the memory. One who cannot be reformed, believes that it is sufficient if he has learned the truths and laid them down in the memory; but he is much mistaken. The truths which he has acquired must be initiated and conjoined with good, and they cannot be initiated and conjoined with good so long as the evils of the love of self and of the world remain in the natural man; these loves were the first introducers, but the truths cannot possibly be conjoined with them.  Therefore, in order that conjunction may be effected, the truths introduced and  retained by these  loves  must  first be exterminated" (n. 5270). The proper source of the genuine truth of  man is therefore  never outside of man in a natural letter, but within man, in the good out of the Lord.

  This also clearly appears from this that a truth derived from the Latin Word is different with each man, according to the reception.  With some it is a genuine truth according to their light from within from the Lord, with some it is an. apparent truth, and with some it is a falsity, according to the glow of the falsity from the proprium. So for instance the teaching from the Latin Word that life  is  the  essential  thing  of  religion,  which  in  itself and with those who understand it from the Lord is a genuine truth, may become a falsity with those who take it up in order to deny the Divinity of the genuine truth born in the Church. This is described in number 9025, of the ARCANA COELESTIA, which has already frequently been quoted: "When a man shall smite his companion

 

115                REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON 

 

with. a stone, or with a fist, signifies the invalidating of some truth by some scientific or general truth. ... By scientific truths are meant the truths which are out of the literal sense of the Word; the general truths there-from are such as are received among the common people and thence in general discourse. There are very many such truths, and they prevail with much force. ... As such truths are out of the literal sense of the Word, they are called scientific truths and they differ from the truths of faith which are of the Doctrine of the Church; for the latter arise from the former by explanation". The above mentioned truth, namely that life is the essential thing of religion, is clearly such a scientific truth out of the Latin Word or such a  general  truth which has been received among the common people and thence in general discourse, which prevails with much force and can be abused as a scientific to invalidate the genuine truth of the Church.

Of this nature, however, are all truths which are received only as scientifics by direct cognizance out of the letter of the Latin Word. For each truth contains within it infinite particulars which are first hidden, and with regard to those it is only a general truth. It is expressly stated "that they are called scientific  truths because they are out of the literal sense of the Word", for this is -the characteristic of a scientific truth, namely that by direct cognizance, it is taken up out of the letter,   regardless   of   what   its   contents   be.   It   is therefore manifest that all truths from the Latin Word which, by direct cognizance, have been taken up from without out of the letter thereof, at first are only scientific truths. For all truths contain infinite particulars, which never appear when taking direct cognizance. And as it is said: "that the scientific truths differ from the truths of faith which are of the Doctrine of the Church", it  clearly  appears  that  the  truths  of  the  letter of the Latin Word are not the truths of the Doctrine of the New Church, but that they differ from them, seeing "the latter arise from the former by explanation".

But seeing the Latin Word is a Divine and infinite revelation of the Rational, and therefore the Word in ultimates, in its fullness, holiness, and power, it follows that,

 

116  REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

although the truths of the letter of the Latin. Word are not the truths of the Doctrine of the New Church, but differ from them, yet all truths of the Doctrine of the New Church are contained in that letter, and that the man who can read that Word from within, that is, out of the good in which he is by regeneration from the Lord, finds the genuine truths of the Doctrine of the New Church confirmed in the letter thereof. The truths of the Latin Word of which it is said that they are not the truths of the Doctrine of the New Church, but differ from them, are the unopened truths which have been received by man only by direct cognizance. The genuine essence of those truths  the  Lord  alone  sees.  But  the  genuine  truths of the Doctrine of the New Church, on the basis of the letter, come from within by a spiritual influx from the Lord. Without this light from within from the Lord the Latin Word also remains a- closed book, sealed with seven seals.

  We see this truth confirmed in the following passage in the ARCANA COELESTIA: "The literal sense of the Word is called a cloud, because the internal sense which is called glory, cannot be comprehended by man, except by one who is regenerated and then enlightened. If the internal sense of the Word, or truth Divine in its glory, were to appear before a man who is not regenerated, it would be liice thick darkness, in which he would  see nothing at all, and by which he would also be blinded, that is he would believe nothing" (n. 8106). That in this passage by the literal sense which is called cloud, every literal sense, therefore also that of the Latin Word, is meant, is evident from this that the seeing of the internal sense is made to depend not on the cognizance of that Word but entirely on the regeneration of man; it is expressly stated that the internal sense or the Divine Truth in its glory does not appear before a non-regenerate man. What then is the letter of the Latin Word? Is it the glory, or is it the cloud? We read that the Son of Man will come in the clouds of heaven with great power and glory (Matt. 24 : 30). This Coming has taken place in the Latin Testament; the clouds in which the Lord came are the letter of the Latin Word in which the Divine Truth of His Divine Human is in lasts or in the natural. The letter also of the Latin Word there-

 

117        REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON 

 

fore remains entirely without power and without glory, unless by the reception of the celestial and spiritual truths from the Lord., on the basis of the letter.

  In a noteworthy article on The first and the Second Education which has been published in the January issue of DE HEMELSCHE LEER, 1931, * Rev. Theodore Pitcairn has  shown that all that a man  receives out of the letter  of  the  Latin  Word  only  belongs  to  his  first. education, and that he brings nothing with him into Heaven of what he has in this way acquired.  He points out that the letter of the Latin Word can be taught and learned by every one, just as all other natural sciences, while it is a revealed truth that the internal sense appears before no one unless he is regenerated (A.C. 8106), and. that no one can see that sense except he to whom the Lord reveals it (W.H. 1).

  The same truth has been elucidated by Prof. Dr. Charles H. van 0s in an article on The Pleiades and the Orion, a translation  of which appeared in NEW CHURCH LIFE, 1929: 532535. An elucidation is there given of the internal sense of the following passage from the BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCH: "I can, from all experience and thence testimony out of Heaven, declare with certainty, that it is impossible to take a single theological truth which is genuine, out of any other source than out of the only Lord; and that to take it out of any other source is as impossible, as it is to sail from England or Holland to the Pleiades, or to ride on horseback from Germany to Orion in the sky" (n. 98). By England, Holland, and Germany the first natural states of the mind are there indicated, which come into existence by the taking up of the scientifics of the Latin Word into the natural faculties of man. By the Pleiades and Orion in the sky the genuine truths and goods of the Church are indicated, which on the basis of the Latin Word are born in the human mind from the Lord. For this is evidently meant by the words "that it is impossible to take a theological truth which is genuine out of any other source than out of the only Lord". For the literal sense of the Latin Word without the living Spirit of the Lord is not the Lord.  

  * This article will appear in the Third Fascicle of the English edition of DE HEMELCHE LEER

 

118  REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

but as a body without a soul; and the essential tenor of this passage from the BRIEF EXPOSITION therefore is that it is just as impossible to receive a truth which is genuine out of the letter of the Latin Word, as it is impossible to go from the earth to the stars of the sky, for what a man receives out of that letter are not genuine truths, they are with him as yet only most general scientifics of truth, although in themselves they are indeed Divine Truths. By this the fundamental law of the order of influx is again elucidated and confirmed, namely that genuine truth does not inflow by taking cognizance of a letter, but that it can come from nowhere else than from within, from the Holy Spirit.

  It is known in the Church that all direct cognizance is dependent on an influx out of the spiritual world and on an afflux out of the natural world. In all that has been said concerning direct cognizance, in what precedes and in what follows, this has been surmised as self-understood. With all direct cognizance there is an apparent influx from without, which becomes an actual influx from the Holy Spirit when the Lord has a dwelling-place in the mind of man. But the influx from the Holy Spirit is dependent on the good of man, and furthermore on the opening of the discrete degrees of the mind, so that the spiritual-natural truths of the natural Doctrine, the spiritual truths of the spiritual Doctrine, and the celestial truths of the celestial Doctrine are entirely different.

  That truth as well as good flows in from within is evident from the following passages in the ARCANA COELESTIA: "The truths previously insinuated are ... as it were exterminated; . . . and then as the man suffers himself to be regenerated the light of truth from good is insinuated from the Lord through an internal way , . ." (n. 5280); "It is good and truth that bring into order each and all things in the natural mind, for they flow in from the interior" (n. 5288): "All the truth of good proceeds from the Divine Human of the Lord; for truths can proceed from everybody, but the truths of good only from the Lord, consequently from those who are in good from the Lord" (n. 8301); and from the following passage in the APOCALYPSE REVEALED: "All truth of the Word is insinuated into the man of the Church from the Lord through Heaven" (n. 541).

 

119                  REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON 

 

  From the preceding it may be evident to every one that by the genuine truths of the Church those truths are never meant which man by direct cognizance takes up out of the letter of the Latin Word. The latter differ much from the former, for the genuine truths are born with man from within out of the Lord. The truths of the letter of the Latin Word are the truths of the Word in ultimates, but the genuine truths of the Church are the truths from the Holy Spirit.

  The genuine truths of the Church in the ARCANA COELESTIA are described as follows: "The man who is being regenerated and becoming spiritual is first led through truth to good; for man does not know what spiritual good, or what is the same, Christian good, is, except through truth or through the doctrinal which is out of the Word; thus he is initiated into good. Afterwards, when he has been initiated, he no longer is led through truth to good, but through good to truth, since he then out of good not only sees the truths which he knew before, but also out of good he produces new truths which he did not know and could not know before. ... These truths or the new truths  differ  much  from  the truths  which he knew previously; for those that he knew previously had but little of life, but those which he receives afterwards have life out of good.  ... Through this truth good fructifies itself in the natural, and produces truths wherein is good, innumerable ones. ... From these things it is plain what is meant by new truth out of spiritual good"  (n.  5804).

  The genuine truths of the Church are represented in the Old Testament by the sons of Israel. The birth of those truths is  described in the ARCANA COELESTIA in the explanation of the seventh verse of the first chapter of EXODUS as follows: "And the sons of Israel were fructified, and they were produced, and they were multiplied, and they were made numerous, exceedingly, and the land was filled with them. ... While the Church is being established,  man is in truths  and through  these good increases; but when. the Church is established with him, then man is in good and out of good in truths, which then increase continually;  little while he lives in the world, because there the care for food and raiment and for other things hinder, but in the other life immensely,

 

120          REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

and this perpetually to eternity; for the wisdom which. is   from  the  Divine   has  no  end.   Thus  the  Angels  are perfected  continually, and thus all  those  who  become Angels" (n. 6648). What then are those truths which grow immeasurably with the man who is becoming an Angel. and by which he is continually perfected to eternity? Are they ever increasing quantities of scientifics of which he takes direct cognizance in the letter of the Latin Word? Or are they the spiritual truths which with him are born in ever increasing quantity and in ever increasing perfection out of good? The passage here quoted and that quoted above (A. C. 5804) leave us in no doubt on this point. It is true indeed that the letter of the Latin Word in itself is infinite, containing all truths, and into the most distant future will remain the basis for all the thought of men and of Angels, and it can never be exhausted by cognizance being taken of it into the ages of ages; but nevertheless it is evident that the perfection of man does not lie merely in an ever extended cognizance of the truths out of the letter, but in the spiritual fructification and multiplication of good and truth in the human mind out of the Lord.

  While the genuine truths which are born in the human mind out of the good from the Lord, are represented by the sons of Israel, the scientifics derived from the letter of the Latin Word are represented by Egypt and the Egyptians. If man persists in gathering only such scientifics, without genuine goods and truths out of good at the same time being born in him, then the truths of the Church with him are oppressed and extinguished. This is represented by the oppression of the sons of Israel by the Egyptians.

  After these expositions it is scarcely conceivable that any one will yet come and say that by those scientific truths out of the letter of the Word, of which in the above quoted number 90-25 of the ARCANA COELESTIA it has been said "that they differ from the truths of faith which are of the Doctrine of the Church",  only the truths of letter of the Old and the New Testament are meant, and that the truths of the letter of the Third Testament an' the genuine spiritual truths of tile. Church themselves. But if this should happen, then let them read that it is

 

    REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON  121

 

said that "the truths of the Doctrine arise from the truths of the letter by unfolding", and that in the continuation of that same passage it is said: "Be it known that the true Doctrine of the Church is that which is here called the internal sense; for in the internal sense are truths such as the Angels have in Heaven. Among the priests and among the men of the Church there are those who teach and who learn the truths of the Church out of the literal sense of the Word, and there are those who teach and who learn out of the Doctrine out of the Word, which is called the Doctrine of faith of the Church. The latter differ very much from the former in perception. . . . Those who teach and who learn only the literal sense of the Word without the Doctrine of the Church as a guide, apprehend nothing but what belongs to the natural or external man; whereas those who teach and who learn out of the true Doctrine which is out of the Word, understand also the things which are of the spiritual or internal man. The reason is that the Word in the external or literal sense is natural, but in the internal sense it is spiritual. The former sense is called in the Word a cloud, but the latter sense is called the glory in the cloud" (A. C. 9025).

That the Latin Testament in its letter is natural, was shown above; this has already been remarked by Rev. Hyatt, and also other leading thinkers  of the  Church have  expressed their agreement with this truth (see the passages quoted by the reviewer from NEW CHURCH TIDINGS and MEW CHURCH LIFE). That by the letter of the Word in this passage the letter of the Latin Testament is meant, appears clearly from this that in the New Church there are no longer any priests and men who teach and who learn only out of the letter of the Old and the New Testament. This passage and this argument have been repeatedly and fully quoted in DE HEMEL.SCHE LEER (First Fasc., pp. 3638; 101103). But as the reviewer has not entered into a discussion of them, although they are of decisive importance and in themselves suffice to prove the truth of the position of DE HEMELSCHE LEER, they are here again pointed out. It is clearly taught in this passage that they who teach and who learn only the literal sense of the Latin Word understand nothing but what belongs to the natural man, because also the Latin Word in its letter is natural. Only by the genuine

122              REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

Doctrine of the Church, of which it is here expressly stated that it is this Doctrine which is called the internal sense, does man arrive at a vision also of the things that belong to the spiritual man; for the letter of the Latin Word consists of merely natural scientifics (see A. C. 4967 and 5213, quoted above); the genuine spiritual truths correspond thereto and lie hidden deep within.  They can never be seen by any man unless by the orderly means from the Lord Himself he is raised into the essential light of the spiritual Heaven.

  That the life and the well-being of the Church depend on the basis of a universal Revelation or a Word given to the Church, and, in equal proportion, on an individual revelation  of  genuine  truth  from  within  out  of  the Lord, whereby the reception of the Lord by the Church as of purely Divine origin and of purely Divine essence is guaranteed, is fully elucidated in the two following propositions in the Latin Word:

  1.   "That the Church is out of the Word, and that it is such as is its understanding of the Word" (S.S. 7679).

  2.   "That the Word without Doctrine out of the Word is not understood, and that the Divine Truth which will be of the Doctrine, appears to none but to those who are in enlightenment from the Lord" (S.S. 5061; A. E. 356).

  Concerning the first proposition we read: "That the Church is out of the Word, does not admit of doubt. ... But that the understanding of the Word makes the Church, may admit of doubt; since there are those who believe that they are of the Church because they have the Word, read it or hear it from a preacher, and know something out of the sense of its letter. Yet how various things in the Word are to be understood, they do not know, and some think this of but little importance. It shall therefore be confirmed, that it is not the Word which makes the Church, but the understanding of it, and that the Church is of such a character as is the understanding of the Word among those who are in the Church. . . . The Word is the Word according to the understanding of it with man, that is, as it is understood. If it is not understood, the Word is indeed called the Word, but, with the man it is not. The Word is the truth according to the understanding of it; for the Word may be

 

123            REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON 

 

not the truth, for it can be falsified. The Word is spirit and life  according  to  the  understanding of it; for the letter without the understanding of it, is dead. Since man has truth and life according to his understanding of the Word, according to that also he has faith and love; for truth is of faith, and love is of life. Now, since the Church is through faith and love, and. according to them, it follows that through the understanding of the Word, and according to it, the church is Church; a noble Church if it is in genuine truths, an ignoble one if not in genuine truths, and a ruined one if in falsified truths. . . . The Lord is present with man through the reading of the Word, but He is conjoined to him through and according to his understanding of truth out of the Word, and so far as the Lord is conjoined to the man, so far the Church is in the man.... In many places in the 'Prophets the understanding of the Word is treated of where the Church is treated of; and it is taught that the Church is not anywhere else but where the Word is rightly understood; and that the Church is of such a quality as is the understanding of the Word. with those who are in it. In many places also, in the Prophets, the Church among the Israelitish and Jewish nation is described as totally destroyed and brought to nought by their having falsified the sense or the understanding of the Word; for something else does not destroy the Church.

The understanding of the Word, both true and false, is described in the Prophets by Ephraim, . . . for by Ephraim in the Word is signified the understanding of the Word in the Church; and because the understanding of the Word makes the Church, therefore Ephraim is called a precious son and a child of delights (Jer. 31 : 20); the first-born (Jer.  31 :9);  the  strength of the head of Jehovah (Ps. 60:7; 108:8); mighty (Zech. 10 : 7); filled with the bow (Zech. 9:13); and the sons of Ephraim are called armed and shooters with the bow (Ps. 78 :9); by the bow is signified the Doctrine out of the Word fighting against falsities. . . . But the quality of the church when the understanding of the Word has been destroyed, is 'also described in the Prophets by Ephraim, especially in Hosea, as is clear out of the following things: Israel and Ephraim shall fall. .. . Ephraim shall become a solitude. . . . Ephraim is oppressed and broken in judgment ...  (Hosea 5: 5, 9,

 

124  REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

11-14). . . . They shall not dwell in the land of Jehovah, ... Ephraim shall return into Egypt and in Assyria he shall eat what is unclean (Hosea 9 :3). The land of Jehovah is the Church, Egypt is the scientific of the natural man; Assyria is reasoning there-from; and out of these things the Word, as to the understanding of it, is falsified. ...  Every  day  Ephraim  multiplieth  falsehood  and vastation; he maketh a covenant with Assyria, and the oil is carried down into Egypt (Hosea 12:1). ... Multiplying falsehood and vastation denotes falsifying the truths, and thus destroying the Church. .. - These things have been adduced in order that it may be known and confirmed out of the Word,  that the  Church is such as is the understanding of the Word in it; excellent and precious, if its understanding is out of the genuine truths out of the Word; but destroyed, yea, filthy, if it be out of falsified ones" (DOCTRINE CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE 7679).

  That all these things in the New Church have reference to the Latin Testament, is clear. The Writings are the Word for the New Church, and seeing the Church is out of the Word. therefore the New Church is out of the Latin Word. The Israelitish Church was out of the Old Testament, the first Christian Church was out of the New Testament, the New Church is out of the Third Testament. But seeing it is not the Word which makes the Church, but the understanding of the Word, it follows that it is not the Latin Word which makes the New Church, but the understanding of that Word. But seeing it is the Divine of the Lord that makes the Church, and not anything of man's proprium, it follows that the understanding of the Word which makes the Church is the Lord Himself and therefore is Divine.

  It therefore clearly appears that not only the Word is Divine but also where the Church through the regeneration of man is really Church, or, as it is said, a noble Church, the reception of the Lord in the human mind is Divine. Where the reception is not purely Divine, where therefore the proprium of man is concerned with the reception, the Word with man is not the Word, and the church is no Church. Compare with this the position of the reviewer of DE HEMELSCHE LEER which appeared in NEW CHURCH LIFE (1931, p. 34): "The understanding of the Word and

 

125             REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON 

 

the Writings, however, depends on human states, and is a human sight of a Divine and infinite thing"; and "We are indeed given the teaching that Divine Doctrine is the Word, and that therefore doctrine from the literal sense is also Divine (A. C. 3712), because by the letter the Lord's Divine Truth proceeds and appears to men. But this does not mean that man's reception of it is Divine". And this in the face of the truth that it is the understanding of the Word that makes the Church, that the Lord can dwell only in what is His own, that the essence of the Church lies in a mutual conjunction between the Good of the Lord and the Truth of the Church, yea that the proper celestial Church, the New Jerusalem, is the Bride of the Lamb. That the reception with the non-regenerate man is not Divine certainly does not in the least do away with the fact that the reception with the regenerated man is Divine. It seems that the reviewer of NEW CHURCH LIFE has there completely lost sight of the reality of the regeneration of man and of the regeneration of the Church, while it is an irrefragable truth, that the salvation of the human race does not depend on the Word only, but also on the Church, yea even that the integrity of the Word depends on the Church, as is clearly taught in the following passage in the CANONS: "Unless, therefore, a new Church be established from the Lord, which shall restore both the Church and the Word in their integrity, not any flesh could be saved" (Divine Trinity 10 : 4).

  Or is it perhaps possible that someone will come and say that in those passages by the Word only the Old and the New Testament are meant? That the New Church therefore is not out of the Third Testament but out of the Old and the New Testament? And that indeed the understanding of the Old and the New Testament may be-true or false, but that in the Writings the genuine understanding itself of the Word has been given? This would mean that it was expected only of the Israelitish and the first Christian Churches that they, on the ground of their Word by the spiritual light which the Lord could give them in their Testaments, should have acquired for themselves a genuine understanding; while the New Church, the Crown of Churches, need not acquire for itself a genuine understanding of the Word, but that it could obtain it without any effort out of a letter. But it is evident that it is just in the New Church that the true

 

126              REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

spiritual understanding of man for the first time becomes fully possible, and that therefore the responsibility for acquiring such an understanding and the difficulties and spiritual combats concerned therewith have immeasurably increased. The order of the formation of that understanding with the man of the New Church has been described at length in DE HEMELSCHE LEER in the explanation of the elucidation of the. title-page on page 3 of the ARCANA COELESTIA, by the exegesis of the concepts of "experience" and "text" (First Fasc., pp. 97123). It is to be regretted that Dr. Acton did not enter into a discussion of this exegesis.

  The understanding of the Word which makes the Church is one of the two essential faculties of the regenerated man. The two essential human faculties are the will and the understanding. Both faculties with man, before regeneration,  are  entirely  perverted.  The  will is then a will of evil, and the understanding an understanding of. falsity, however much such a man may take up the truths by direct cognizance out of the letter of the Latin Word. The Latin Word then is not the truth (see the above quoted passages, S.S. 77), for it is falsified by man. But if man is regenerated, he receives a new voluntary and a new intellectual from the Lord. These in the Old Testament are represented by the two sons of Joseph, Manasseh and Ephraim. This is the reason why the understanding of the Word is represented by Ephraim, as appears from the passages quoted.

  The intellectual of every man is entirely as his voluntary. It is the voluntary which determines the essence of man. According to the most general distinction there are three kinds of perverted voluntaries, by which the essence of the three hells is determined, and three kinds of holy voluntaries, by which the essence of the three Heavens is determined. The intellectual that belongs to these different kinds of voluntaries respectively, therefore also is entirely different. The understanding of the Word also with each man is different. It is a perverted understanding with the nonregenerate man; it is a holy understanding with the regenerated man; a spiritual-natural understanding with the man of the natural Heaven; a spiritual understanding with the man of the spiritual Heaven; and a celestial understanding with the man of the celestial Heaven.  Without

 

127             REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON 

 

such a holy understanding the letter of the Latin Word is dead. The great importance of this truth clearly appears if one knows that man can be led only by his intellectual. Concerning this we read in the ARCANA COELESTIA: "Every man is led from the Divine through his intellectual; if he were not led through this, no man could be saved" (n. 10409).

  As to the most general distinction there are three degrees of regeneration, according to the three Heavens. The man who as a result of regeneration in the first degree reads the letter of the Latin Word out of the celestial of the first Heaven through the spiritual-natural understanding, is in the internal sense of that Heaven, that is, in the internal sense of the interior-natural (see A.C. 5145). This is the only internal sense, namely the internal-historical sense, in which the Church before the birth of the Doctrine of the Church can take part. In this state the thought of the Church remains as yet entirely bound to the natural things of the letter of the Latin Word. The man who as a result of regeneration in the second degree reads the letter of the Latin Word out of the celestial of the second Heaven through the spiritual understanding, is in the internal sense of that Heaven, that is, in the internal sense of the exterior-rational, or in the proper spiritual sense of the Latin Word.

This sense is the spiritual Doctrine of the Church. In this state the thought of the Church has been entirely freed from the natural things of the letter of the Latin Word and in that Word no more sees anything else than the purely exterior-rational concepts of spiritual good and truth. The man who as a result of regeneration in the third degree reads the letter of the Latin Word out of the celestial of the third Heaven through the celestial understanding, is in the internal sense of that Heaven, that is, in the internal sense of the interior-rational, or in the proper celestial sense of the Latin Word. This sense is the celestial Doctrine of the Church, and in this state the man of the Church no more sees anything else, in all the particulars of the Latin Word, even to each smallest singular word thereof, than purely celestial truths which all have reference to the Divine Human of the Lord alone.

  This understanding of the Latin Word as regards its internal things is represented in the REVELATION OF JOHN

 

128  REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

by the White Horse. Concerning this we read in the work ON THE WHITE HORSE: "By Heaven being opened is represented and signified, that the internal sense of the Word is seen in Heaven, and thence by those in the world to whom Heaven is opened; the horse which was white, represents and signifies the understanding of the Word as to its interiors. . . . Having a name written that no one knew but He Himself, signifies that the quality of the Word in the internal sense is seen by no one but Himself, and those to whom He reveals it. . . . The armies in the Heavens which followed Him upon white horses, signify those who are in the understanding of the Word as to its interiors. Clothed in fine linen, white and clean, signifies that they are in truth out of good" (n. 1). And further in the following number: "The horse signifies the understanding, and the rider one who is intelligent. . . . This may be confirmed from many places in the Word. . . . In David: He rideth upon the Word of truth (Ps. 45 : 4). [And in the unfavorable sense where the perverted understanding of the Word is treated of:] In Zechariah: In that day, saith Jehovah, I will smite every horse with stupidity, and the rider with madness, . . . every horse of the people I will smite with blindness (12 : 4).

It treats there of the vastation of the Church, which takes place when there no longer remains the understanding of any truth; and which is described thus by the horse and the rider; what else could be the meaning of smiting every horse with stupidity, and the horse of the people with blindness? What has this to do with the Church? In Job: God hath caused him to forget wisdom, neither hath He imparted to him intelligence; when it is time He lifteth up Himself on high, He laugheth at the horse and its rider (39 : 17, 18). That the horse here signifies the understanding, is evident" (ON THE WHITE HORSE 2). And further: "In the spiritual world horses are frequently seen, and riders, and also chariots; and there every one knows that they signify something of the understanding and of doctrine. I have often seen, when any were thinking from their understanding, that at such times they appeared as if riding on horses; their meditations were thus represented before others" (ON THE WHITE HORSE 3).

  Out of these things it is evident that the internal sense is never anywhere else than in the understanding of those

 

129             REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON 

 

for whom Heaven is opened and to whom the Lord reveals that sense, and that merely by direct cognizance it cannot possibly be seen in the letter of the Latin Word. Dr. Acton himself expressed this truth by the words "that the Writings are the Heavenly Doctrine revealed in such language that it can be seen by all who will read in the light of heaven" (p. 20). But that he has not considered what this really means appears from his remark that "Divine Truth now comes to us . . . so set forth . . . that all who will may see" (p. 17), and "that if the Writings are read in humility and not in the light of self-intelligence, the truths there revealed will come to be seen" (p. 18). Is it not clear that man only very gradually can see the truths in the light of Heaven? Does not a long time precede before he even sees them in the light of the lowest Heaven; and is it not clear that when at last he sees them in the light of the lowest Heaven, he does not by a long way yet see them in the light of the second Heaven; and that when at length he sees them in the light of the second Heaven, he does not by a long way yet see them in the light of the third Heaven? All humility and all shunning of one's own intelligence will not suffice to enable a man in his preparatory states to see the truth in the light of the different Heavens themselves. Before the first degree of regeneration, thus before a man lives in conjunction with the Angels of the lowest Heaven, he cannot even -see the Latin Word in the light of that Heaven, that is in the light of the interior-natural. He can indeed, if he is affirmative and of such a nature that in the future he can be regenerated, in a state of humility see the Latin Word in the light of the exterior-natural (see A.C. 5145); but the truths of the exterior-natural are only the most ultimate generals of truth, and compared with the truths even of the lowest Heaven, they are most ultimate appearances of truth. Whatever man in this state takes up out of the letter of the Latin Word, even concerning spiritual and celestial, yea Divine things, at the best are merely exterior-natural truths. How could it be expected of a man in this state that he already reads the Latin Word in the light of Heaven? This is evidently the teaching of the above quoted passages from the work ON THE WHITE HORSE, namely "that the internal sense is seen in Heaven, and thence by those in the world to whom Heaven is opened",

 

130  REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

and "that the internal sense is seen by no one but Himself, and those to whom He reveals it", and "that [the Angels and Angel-men] are in the understanding of the Word as to its internal sense", and "that they are in truth out of good" (n. 1).

  But although man in the Latin Word can never see the genuine truths of the different Heavens unless with regard to  his  spirit  he  has  already been taken up into those Heavens, still any one who approaches this Word in humility can perceive, by an immediate influx from the Lord, that that Word is true. And therefore we have the absolute certainty that any one who in a state of humility approaches the passages of the Latin Word where the Divinity of the Doctrine born in the Church is expressly taught, will see the truth thereof.

  Out of these things it may now appear that in the truth of the Latin Word that it is not the Word which makes the Church, but the understanding of the Word, this truth is involved that unless the reception of the Lord by man is Divine, the Latin Word is not the Word, and the church not the Church. "It is the Lord who is the all in all things of Heaven and of the Church, from the eternal to the eternal" (A.E. 23).

  The second of the above-mentioned propositions reads thus: "That the Word without; Doctrine out of the Word is not understood, and that the Divine Truth which will be of the Doctrine, appears to none but to those who are in enlightenment from the Lord".

  Anyone who is enlightened from the Lord can see in numerous places in the Latin Word that a Doctrine must be born in the Church out of the Lord and that without such a Doctrine the Church will not continue to exist. When we read: "The Word without Doctrine is as a candlestick without light, and those who read the Word without Doctrine, or who do not acquire for themselves a Doctrine out of the Word, are in darkness as to all truth" (S.S. 5061), we realize that in the New Church nothing else can be meant by this than that the Latin Word without the genuine Doctrine born in the Church from the Lord is as a candlestick without light, and that they who read the Latin Word without the genuine Doctrine born in the

 

131             REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON 

 

Church from the Lord, or who do not acquire for themselves a genuine Doctrine from the Lord out of the Latin Word, are in darkness as to all truth,

  The cause of the Word without Doctrine being as a candlestick without light is  described in the DOCTRINE CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE as follows: "That the Word cannot be understood without Doctrine is because the Word in the sense of the letter consists of mere correspondences, to the end that the spiritual and celestial things may be simultaneously therein, and that every word may be their containant and support. For this reason, in some places in the sense of the letter the truths are not naked, but clothed, and are then called appearances of truth; and many things also are accommodated to the capacity of the simple, who do not uplift their thoughts above such things as they see before their eyes. There are also some things that appear as contradictions, although the Word when viewed in its own light contains no contradiction. . . . Such being the Word in the sense of the letter, it is evident that it cannot be understood without Doctrine" (n. 51). Superficially considered one would be inclined to think that these things apply only to the letter of the Old and the New Testament. That however with regard to the man of the New Church. this essentially concerns a description of the letter of the Latin Testament, clearly appears upon closer study. That also the letter of the Latin Word has been written in correspondences and that there too the Word is clothed in appearances which seem to be contradictory to each other, has for a long time been acknowledged by some (see the passage quoted by the reviewer on p. 5 from Rev. E. S. Hyatt, and on ?. 7 from Rev. C. Th, Odhner). But the full consequences of this truth were then not yet seen.

  The Word in the sense of the letter consists of mere correspondences for the purpose that the celestial and spiritual things may be simultaneously therein. For this reason the Word in the letter is in its fullness, holiness, and power. The proper correspondence then always consists between the natural or the letter written in correspondences, and the spiritual and the celestial and the Divine, which things are never anywhere else than in the internal mind of the regenerated man, in the proper Heavens themselves, and in the Lord Himself. The distance between that natural

 

132  REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

of the letter and out of the letter in. the memory of man and those spiritual, celestial, and Divine things is immeasurable,  and  there  is  no  relation  whatever between  them except that of correspondence. Moreover, man can only then speak of correspondences if he is in the spiritual causes and out of these causes sees the correspondences thereof in the natural, so that he partakes of both, the causes in the  spiritual  and  the  effects in the natural; for it is the  effects  in  the  natural  which  correspond  to  the causes in the spiritual. He, however, who has no part in the spiritual causes, which is the case with every one who has not been raised into Heaven by regeneration, cannot yet see what correspondences are; with regard to him all particulars of the literal sense of the Latin Word are not even yet correspondences, but only representations. This appears  from  the  following  passage  in  the  ARCANA COELESTIA in the first chapter On Representations and Correspondences: "Between the spiritual things and the natural things there exist correspondences, and the things that come forth from spiritual things in natural things are representations. 

They are called correspondences because they correspond, and representations because they represent" (n. 2987). From this it is now evident that the essence of the literal sense also of the Third Testament is determined entirely by the distance between the natural and the spiritual; and that distance is immeasurable, just as the distance between the earth and the firmament, yea even much more so; for in the natural world every one, the evil as well as the good, from the earth can see the stars of the firmament, but in the spiritual world only the good can. Whether one is in the sensual representations of the Old Testament, or in the natural-rational representations of the Third Testament, the distance remains immeasurable. It is a fallacy of natural thought to believe that that distance has been bridged over by the natural-rational representations of the Third Testament, or that that distance there has become essentially smaller. The fact that one did not at once realize the immeasurableness of that distance in the Third Testament shows that there the veil of truth in fact has become thicker. By taking up the things of the letter of the Latin Word by direct cognizance,  man is only in natural representations. There is no other way to

 

133    REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON 

 

arrive at the genuine internal sense or the genuine spiritual and celestial truths from these natural representations than the long and difficult way of regeneration, and this along all the interior degrees of the human mind. By regeneration man for the first time is enabled to see the internal sense of the Latin Word; for then man no longer sees that Word from without, but from within. The man who is regenerated in the first degree sees the Latin Word in the light of the first Heaven, and thus he sees in it the internal historical sense; he still believes that the Latin Word treats essentially of the Jews, Roman Catholics, and Protestants. The man who is regenerated in the second degree for the first time sees the abstract spiritual sense. For the first time he has left the letter of the Latin Word; he realizes that in that Word the essential point never is the natural things mentioned therein; his thought moves in the spiritual-rational concepts  of  good  and truth, to which the natural things correspond. The man who is regenerated in the third degree for the first time sees the celestial sense; in each smallest word of the Latin Word he no more sees anything else than a description of the Divine Human of the Lord.

  Rev. Hyatt expressed this truth in these words: "The teaching respecting the Jews has not been given merely that we may know how evil the Jews are. If we wish to see something of the spiritual sense within in the passage, we must put away the idea of the Jews as persons, and then we will find that it applies to all persons, thus to our own selves"  (quoted  by the  reviewer on page 5). Dr. Acton himself has touched upon this truth in a letter to the present writer in which he says that in the past the question has often been raised, how in the New Church in the distant future, when there will no longer be the recollection of the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches, a book like the BRIEF EXPOSITION will be read: and the reply was given that the New Church will then distinguish therein more abstract things, separate from those historical things. Does the difference between the internal-historical sense and the spiritual sense of the Latin Word not lie concealed in this thought? Is it not a difference which now already exists? In the way Rev. Hyatt expresses this thought this clearly appears. Will not the Church when  once it  sees that abstract sense, then also acknowledge that it has formerly

 

134  REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

seen only the natural sense and that formerly it was not able  to  form  rational  ideas  of  the  genuine  spiritual sense which lies concealed within, waiting to be brought to light by the orderly means? Those orderly means have been revealed in the DOCTRINE CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE, namely the Science of Correspondences, the Doctrine of genuine Truth, and Enlightenment from the Lord. Although Dr. Acton has acknowledged that in the future a 'deeper sense, abstract from the historical things, will be seen in the Latin Word, still he is of the opinion that that sense will be found without the revealed means for the exegesis of the internal sense. How far he goes in this concept appears from a further elucidation given to the present writer, in which he says that for the acquiring of the internal sense in the Writings there is not only no need of the science of correspondences but also no need of "genuine doctrine and illustration".  We read in the ARCANA COELESTIA: "The internal sense, which is called glory, cannot be comprehended by man. except by one who is regenerated and then enlightened" (n. 8106); and "The genuine sense of the Word. is apprehended by none but those who are enlightened" (n. 10323), and so in numerous other places.

  The cause of the internal sense of the Latin Testament being so deeply hidden from the Church in its first state, is this, that in this state, which is the state of the interior-natural, only a merely natural idea can be had also of the internal sense in the Old and the New Testament, so that the interior-natural ideas which in that state are formed respecting the internal sense of the Old and the New Testament are regarded as the genuine spiritual sense. The true spiritual sense of the Old and the New Testament is only seen when first of all the true spiritual sense of the Third Testament is seen. For "the spiritual sense of the Word is given to none but those who are in the genuine truths from the Lord" (S.S. 26). The truths however which man by direct cognizance takes up out of the letter of the Latin Word, are. as has been explained above, not yet genuine truths with man; the genuine truths with him on the basis of that letter come from within out of good. Genuine spiritual truths, in the light of which also the spiritual sense of the Old and the New Testament could be seen, are never

 

 135            REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON 

 

to be found in any other way than by the literal sense of the Latin Word first being opened. Only in that Word the way to spiritual truths can be found, according to the revealed, above named, orderly means. Only he who first in that Word according to order has penetrated to genuine spiritual truths, can afterwards in the light thereof also penetrate to the spiritual truths or to the genuine spiritual sense of the Old and the New Testament. From this it follows that before the literal sense of the Third Testament has first of all been opened, or, what is the same, before the spiritual Doctrine of the Church has been born, all exposition of the internal sense of the Old and the New Testament cannot possibly arise above the natural sense; that  therefore  the  distance  from the truths which are obtained by such an exposition to genuine spiritual truths, is immeasurable and that there is no relation there between but that of correspondence.

  In the letter of the Latin Word the Divine Truth has been laid down in the Natural. On this natural basis man only by regeneration can arrive at the spiritual sense. This spiritual sense exists only as a living vision of the genuine spiritual truth in the internal mind of a man regenerated in the second degree. The fact that we have learned out of the Latin Word that in the spiritual sense the sun signifies love and the moon faith, that wood signifies good and stone truth, etc. does not at all mean that we see the spiritual sense of the things mentioned; for the concepts of love, faith, good, and truth, etc., upon direct cognizance are only the spiritual sense laid down in the natural; for the present they are merely natural representations. Man, before by regeneration having become as an Angel of the second Heaven, cannot possibly form a genuine spiritual idea of those things. The proper essence of representations is that they are forms in the natural which correspond to spiritual things. The spiritual things are the causes, the representations in the natural are the effects. From this it appears that the essence of the representations can never be seen in the natural, unless out of the spiritual causes. It has been conceded that the literal sense of the Latin Word has been written according to the law of correspondences (see pp. 5, 7). From this it follows that no one can ever see the genuine spiritual sense in the Latin Word, unless from the

 

136  REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

Lord Himself by regeneration he has been raised to those spiritual things or causes from which the representations in the natural proceed as effects. There is indeed also a correspondence  between  the  sensual  things of the Old Testament and the natural-rational concepts derived from the letter of the Third Testament, such as between the sun and love, the moon and faith, wood and good, stone and truth; but these are not the essential correspondences, for they are correspondences between things which are both in the natural, therefore both on the same plane. They are correspondences in different degrees of the natural with a spiritual thing living within. It is evident therefore that he who with the help of the science of correspondences revealed in the Latin Word arrives from the sensual things at the corresponding natural-rational ideas of the letter of the Latin Word, has by no means yet risen above the natural, and therefore in no way yet partakes of the spiritual sense. The sense of the Word which the Church so far, in the light of only the letter of the Latin Word has seen and preached, was indeed a genuine internal sense in the measure in which man thereby regarded the Lord and the neighbor; but it was not the spiritual sense of the Word, it was the internal-natural sense, or the sense of the Word which is seen in the light of the lowest Heaven.

  Seeing the letter also of the Latin Word consists of mere correspondences and therefore cannot be understood without Doctrine out of that Word, and seeing the letter without Doctrine is as a candlestick without light and that those who read the letter without Doctrine are in darkness concerning all truth, it follows that with regard to man not the Latin Word is the light, but the genuine Doctrine out of that Word. The Latin Word in itself is indeed the Light itself, for it is the Divine Human of the Lord. But with regard  to man only the Doctrine is the light. Without Doctrine man also with regard to the Third Testament remains in darkness as to all truth. But what now is that genuine Doctrine which must give the light to man when reading the Latin Word? and How does man arrive at this Doctrine? The answer to this question is clearly given in the Latin Word itself. We read in the work ON THE NEW JERUSALEM AND ITS CELESTIAL DOCTRINE: "The internal sense  is  the  very Doctrine of the Church. Those who

 

137             REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON 

 

understand the Word according to the internal sense, know the true Doctrine itself of the Church, because the internal sense contains it" (n. 260), and this is there confirmed by reference to the numbers 9025, 9430, and 10400 of the ARCANA COELESTIA. In n. 9025 this truth is elucidated as follows: "By scientific truths are meant the truths which are out of the literal sense of the Word. . . . Such truths . . . differ from the truths of faith which are of the Doctrine of the Church; for the latter arise from the former by an unfolding. ... Be it known that the true Doctrine of the Church is that which is here called the internal sense; for in the internal sense are truths such as the Angels have in Heaven". It is here clearly said how man arrives at the truths of faith, namely by an unfolding of the letter; not therefore by direct cognizance of the letter, for in this way he remains entirely in the scientific truths only, but by an orderly opening of the letter. It is said that the internal sense thus arrived at is the true Doctrine of the Church, We read in the continuation of the same number: "Among the priests and among the men of the Church, there are those who teach and who learn the truths of the Church out of the literal sense of the Word; and there are those who teach and who learn out of the Doctrine out of the Word, which is called the Doctrine of faith of the Church.

The latter differ very much from the former in perception. . . . Those who teach and who learn only the literal sense of the Word without the Doctrine of the Church as a guide, apprehend nothing but those things which belong to the natural or external man; whereas those who teach and who learn out of the true Doctrine out of the Word, understand also the things which are of the spiritual or internal man. The cause of this is that the Word in the external or literal sense is natural, but in the internal sense it is spiritual.  The former sense is called in the Word a cloud, but the latter sense is called the glory in the cloud". The great difference is here indicated between those who teach and who learn only out of the letter and those who teach and who learn out of the Doctrine out of the Word. Of the former it is said that they apprehend nothing but those things which belong to the natural man, whereas the latter also understand the things which are of the spiritual man. It is clearly said that the difference does not lie in

 

138              REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

the direct cognizance of the letter, but in the perception; in other words the true light cannot possibly come only by direct cognizance of the Latin Word, it comes out of the internal by perception. In n. 10400 this truth is elucidated as follows: "Let them consider also whether anyone can know the Divine truths of the Word in the literal sense, except by Doctrine drawn there-from, and if he have not Doctrine for a lamp that he is carried away into errors. . . . The Doctrine which should be for a lamp is that which the internal sense teaches, thus it is the internal sense itself". That this passage is to be applied to the Latin Word is evident. Without guidance of the genuine Doctrine which is to be drawn out of that Word, one cannot possibly know the Divine truths in the letter, but one is led away into errors. The history of the New Church gives plain evidence of this. But it is said that the internal sense teaches that Doctrine and that the internal sense is that Doctrine. The internal sense of the Latin Word is therefore the genuine Doctrine of the New Church. The same is taught in the following  passage  in  the  ARCANA  COELESTIA:  "The Doctrine itself out of the Word must at any rate give light and guide. This Doctrine itself is taught by the internal sense; and he who knows this Doctrine has the internal sense of the Word" (n. 10276).

  The reviewer himself has stated as his position that the New Church must draw its Doctrine not only from the Old and the New Testament, but also from the Writings (see N. CH. L. 1920 : 656; 1928 : 519). But first of all, upon closer investigation, it is evident that the New Church must draw its Doctrine entirely out of the Latin Word, and that only thereafter, with that Doctrine it can understand also the Old and the New Testament, and secondly, the question arises how and in what manner the reviewer proposes that the New Church should draw its Doctrine also from the Writings, in view of the truth on the one side that it is only the internal sense of the Latin Word which teaches that Doctrine (A.C. 10400), and that it is obtained by perception (A.C. 9025), and of the fact on the other side, that the reviewer is of opinion that the internal sense and therefore the Doctrine can be seen in the Writings not only without the science of correspondences, but even without genuine doctrine  and without illustration. For

 

139                 REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON 

 

the teaching that the Church must draw a Doctrine out of the Word is based on the fact that otherwise it cannot understand the Word, seeing it has been written in pure correspondences,  covering the genuine  truth as with a garment. It is expressly said "that this Doctrine can be acquired by none except those who are in enlightenment from the Lord" (A. E. 356). Why then does the reviewer favor  the view  that  the New Church must draw its Doctrine also out of the Writings, if that Doctrine according to him, lies open plainly to view? For of the necessity of drawing the Doctrine also out of the Latin Word, which can only be done by one who is in enlightenment from the Lord, there need then be no question. For according to the reviewer no enlightenment is required for seeing the internal sense and therefore the genuine Doctrine in the Latin Word. Is this not as if the reviewer with one hand had written before our eyes this profound truth that the New Church must draw its Doctrine out of the Third Testament, and that he thereupon immediately wipes it out with the other hand by saying that the New Church need not draw a Doctrine out of the Third Testament, seeing the Doctrine there lies open plainly to view? For on the one side he says "that Divine Revelation or the written Word is always given in the language of appearances adapted to the natural mind; and that in the letter of the Word thus revealed,  men  are to  seek  for the internal  sense,  the genuine doctrine, that so they might draw from the letter the doctrine of the Church, embodying their understanding of the Word. In the New Church also the Revelation is given in the form of appearances, adapted to the apprehension of all manner of men, and as in former Churches, so in the New, the doctrines of the Church must be drawn from the Word in its letter, and confirmed thereby. To the New Church, this Word includes the Writings of the Church as given to us in a literal form" (p. 8); and on the other side he says, that in the Writings for the acquiring of the internal sense there is no need of genuine doctrine and illustration (see page 134). What then can be meant by those "appearances adapted to the natural mind"? and Why then must men "seek for the internal sense, the genuine doctrine"? and how can anyone seek without illustration? But still it is a genuine and fundamental truth which the

 

140  REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

reviewer there on the one side touched as from afar, namely that the New Church is to draw its Doctrine out of the Latin Word; for the New Church is out of that Word. The New Church is not out of the Old Testament and not out of the New Testament, it is exclusively out of the Third Testament and its Doctrine must be drawn exclusively oat of the Third Testament. Only then will the Old and the New Testament open themselves for the Church. But on the other side it would seem that the reviewer when he touched this truth did not realize why a Doctrine must be drawn out of the Latin Word and how that Doctrine can be drawn; namely because otherwise the letter remains in the dark; and because the internal sense of the Latin Word is that Doctrine, and because that Doctrine by the regenerated men of the Church is received from the Lord Himself in a state of enlightenment.

  That by this genuine Doctrine or by the Doctrine of the Church the literal sense of the Latin Word can in no way be meant, appears from the following passages: "The Word in the letter cannot be apprehended except by means of the Doctrine out of the Word, made by one who is enlightened" (A.C.  10324).  "The Doctrine can be acquired by none except those who are in enlightenment from the Lord" (A.E. 356). "A man signifies one who is intelligent, and also truth, thence the Doctrine" (A.C. 6086). "The genuine sense of the Word is apprehended by none but those who are enlightened" (A.C. 10323). "The things of the Church and of Heaven are not understood and perceived except from enlightenment; for the things of the Church and of Heaven, which are called spiritual things, do not enter into man's understanding, except by means of the light of Heaven, and the light of Heaven enlightens it. This is the reason why the Word, in which are contained the things of the Church and of Heaven, cannot be understood except by one who is enlightened" (A.E. II). In the light of these passages it may be evident to anyone that the Doctrine is not given to the Church as the letter of a Word, but that it  is born  in the  Church  from the Lord;  furthermore  it appears that the Doctrine concerning the enlightenment of man and therefore the Doctrine concerning the origin and essence of the Doctrine of the Church born in the Church must occupy a central place in the New Church, while

 

141             REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON 

 

up to the present the existence of such a Doctrine has scarcely been surmised.  What slight value the  reviewer himself attaches to such a Doctrine appears clearly from the disparaging words "a real or imagined enlightenment" in which on page 27 he speaks of enlightenment. And it is taught "that the genuine sense of the Word is apprehended by none but those who are enlightened" (A.C. 10323). The Latin Word alone does not make the Church, for it is not the Word which makes the Church, but the understanding thereof. Without enlightenment with regard to each  smallest  singular  truth  the Latin Word is as a candlestick without light. The reviewer, however, is of opinion that the internal sense and therefore the genuine Doctrine (for the internal sense is the Doctrine) can be seen in the Latin Word without enlightenment. That all that a man sees without enlightenment is false, is a self-evident truth. The false doctrinals which a man without enlightenment derives from the Latin Word, are described in the following passage of the ARCANA COELESTIA: "By graven images and molten images not idols are meant, but the false doctrinals of the Church, such as are formed from man himself. ... Such is the case with every doctrinal which is made out of man and not out of the Lord. . . . Inasmuch as the falsities and evils of doctrine, which are signified hy graven and molten images, are fabricated from man's self-intelligence under the guidance of his love, therefore also in the Word they are called the work of the hands of man" (n. 10406).

  The laws and the order of the enlightenment by which the genuine Doctrine is born in the Church from the Lord, are  described  in  the  12th, 20th, and 26th chapters of Genesis in the ARCANA COELESTIA. DE HEMELSCHE LEER has continually and  emphatically pointed out that its vision of the Divinity of the Doctrine of the Church in these three chapters is clearly taught in all its particulars. In many places in DE HEMELSCHE LEER it has been pointed out that there lies the proper soul of all our thought (First Fasc., pp. 28, 56, 68, 7172, 89, 104). It is there said that in Mr. Groeneveld's address on The Doctrine of the Church (First Fasc".., pp. 14-17; elucidated on pp. 56-65) all phases of the origin and the coming into existence of the Doctrine have been described on the basis

 

142  REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

of the 12th, 20th, and 26th chapters of Genesis. The culmination of this argument lies in this, that it is shown out of the Latin Word that the celestial Doctrine comes into existence by the influx of the celestial from within into' the rational; which means that the celestial Doctrine of the Church is an immediate Divine revelation by perception. This central, all-dominating argument, the proper soul and the proper life of DE HEMELSCHE LEER, has not been noticed by the reviewer with one single word. At the end of his  review  we  read a circumstantial argument that, according to his conviction, the value of what a man can do consists only in his pointing to the Word. Repeatedly DE HEMELSCHE LEER has pointed to those three chapters in Genesis and claimed that there the truth of its vision is confirmed, and that its concept depends entirely on those three chapters; nevertheless, these references are not even noticed by the reviewer. And still it is a fact that everything that is essential in DE HEMELSCHE LEER will be overlooked, if this central argument is not taken into consideration.

  When it has penetrated to our mind of what fundamental significance the Doctrine concerning enlightenment is (for in essence it is inseparable from the Doctrine concerning the Holy Spirit), then for the first time it will become clear of what universal significance the teaching is "that the Word without Doctrine is as a candlestick without light" and "that they who read the Word without Doctrine remain in darkness as to all truth". They are greatly in error who believe that this teaching applies only to the Old and the New Testament. It is just in the unfolding of the Third Testament that this teaching for the first time can find its proper and full application, for the application to the Old and the New Testament must in any case be preceded by the application to the Third Testament. If the literal sense of the Third Testament is not first of all opened, the Old and the New Testament likewise remain closed. The laws and the order of enlightenment, such as they are described in the 12th, 20th, and 26th chapters of Genesis, in a most general summary are the following. FIRST: That with the coming into existence of genuine scientifics out of the Latin Word and afterwards with the coming into existence of genuine cognitions, the intellectual is not con-

 

143            REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON 

 

suited, but that they come from the Lord alone and therefore are purely Divine (12th chapter); SECOND: That with the coming into existence of the genuine spiritual Doctrine the natural-rational is not consulted, but that it comes from the Lord alone and therefore is purely Divine (20th chapter): THIRD: that with the coming into existence of the genuine celestial Doctrine the exterior-rational is not consulted, but that it comes from the Lord alone and therefore is purely Divine (26th chapter).

  Out of these things it is now evident beyond a doubt that also the second of the above-mentioned propositions, namely "that the Word without Doctrine out of the Word is not understood, and that the Divine Truth which will be of the Doctrine appears to none but to those who are in enlightenment from the Lord" must be applied to the Third Testament.

  In the light of the preceding explanations it is clear that what Dr. Acton took to be the purpose of DE HEMELSCHE LEER is founded on a total misapprehension of the true purpose. According to Dr. Action's conception the purpose of DE HEMELSCHE LEER would be "to show: (1) That since the Writings are the Word, it logically follows that these Writings are not the internal sense of the Word but themselves have an internal sense; and (2) that this internal sense is the Heavenly Doctrine and is made manifest to men by the doctrines formulated by the Church" (p. 3).

  With regard to the first point we refer to DE HEMELSCHE LEER, pp. 43, 35, 129, where it is said: "Indeed the Third Testament is the revelation of the internal sense of the Word, but only if one regards the literal sense of that Word not from without but from within or from the spiritual rational".  The  internal  sense with its  external  sense always make one, as the soul with its body. They are  absolutely  inseparable,  for  the  body  without  the soul  is dead,  and the soul without  the body  has no foundation and no containant by which it is kept together and exists. A formula such as this of the reviewer's "that since the Writings are the Word, it logically follows that these Writings are not the internal' sense of the Word but themselves have an internal sense", is entirely in disagree-

 

144  REPLY TO THE REV, PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

ment with the mode of thought of DE HEMELSCHE LEER. The internal sense with its external sense have there been represented as if they could exist as two separate things. This idea has been conceived because the literal sense of the Old and the New Testament and the literal sense of the Third Testament lie next to each other in the natural, and the natural-rational explanations which the natural man derives from the letter of the Third Testament by direct cognizance are regarded as the internal sense of the Old and the New Testament. If man thereby at the same time regards the Lord and the neighbor this is indeed an internal sense, but it is in no way yet the spiritual sense, it  is  the  internal-natural  sense,  such  as  the  Word  read in the first Heaven. And if man does not at the same time regard the Lord and the neighbor, be it known that an upright Israelite who was in the letter of the Old Testament and at the same time in faith and in charity was more in the internal sense than he. For such an Israelite with regard to his internal man was in the internal sense, although he did not know it (cf. A.C. 10430, 10400), but the former with regard to his internal man is in evil and in falsity, and even if he knew by heart the whole of the letter of the Latin Word, he would still not see one single truth, but nothing else than the fallacies of the separated external sense.

 The position of DE HEMELSCHE LEER with regard to the second point is the following: The Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg are the Third Testament of the Word of God; they are the infinite Divine Doctrine itself, and they contain the entire Doctrine of the Church, the natural Doctrine of the natural Church, the spiritual Doctrine of the spiritual Church,  and the celestial Doctrine of the celestial Church; for in the letter of the Word, this being the Divine Truth in ultimates, all Divine, celestial, spiritual, and natural truths are together. But although the Latin Word contains the entire Doctrine of the Church, still this can be seen by none but those to whom the Lord in a state of enlightenment reveals it by perception. That man cannot see the internal truths in the Word except from the Lord is described in the ARCANA COELESTIA as follows: "There are in the Word throughout internal truths, but those who are in the science of cognitions, and not at the same time

 

145                    REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON 

 

in life, when they read the Word, do not even see these truths;... the posterior things of the Word appear to them, but not the anterior things, that is, the exterior things, but not the interior; and to see the posterior or exterior things, without seeing the anterior or interior things, is to see nothing of the Divine" (n. 3416). The Doctrine of the Church is spiritual out of celestial origin, and therefore it is a Divine revelation by perception. The man who has been regenerated in the first degree, as an Angel of the first Heaven, perceives the natural Doctrine of the Church; the man who has been regenerated in the second degree, as an Angel of the second Heaven, perceives the spiritual Doctrine of the Church; and the man who has been regenerated in the third degree, as an Angel of the third Heaven, perceives the celestial Doctrine of the Church.

A formula such as this of the reviewer's "that this internal sense is the Heavenly Doctrine and is made manifest to men by the doctrines formulated by the Church" is entirely in disagreement with the mode of thought of DE HEMELSCHE LEER. The internal sense or the genuine' Doctrine is never made manifest to anyone in any other way than by perception from the Lord, for the Doctrine is spiritual out of celestial origin. In the letter of the Doctrine of the Church the truth has been sealed anew with seven seals, and it is never seen by any others than by those who from the Lord are raised to the source of the Doctrine, that is, its celestial origin (First Fuse., pp. 69, 121). Moreover from the words "that this internal sense is the Heavenly Doctrine" it appears that the difference between the natural Doctrine, the spiritual Doctrine, and the celestial Doctrine is not seen by the reviewer. Although acquainted with the truth that the Word and the Doctrine out of the Word or the Doctrine of the Church are two different things (see above p. 8), he seems, with regard to the Latin Word, to have lost sight of the fact of this difference, identifying the Latin Word with the Doctrine of the Church. Respecting the necessity that this difference should be observed, we read in the ARCANA COELESTIA: "It shall briefly be told how the case is with the support of the Word out of the Doctrine which is out of the Word. He who does not know the arcana of Heaven cannot believe otherwise than that the Word is supported without Doctrine there-from; for he supposes that the Word

 

146  REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

in the letter, or the literal sense of the Word, is the Doctrine itself. . . . But. the Doctrine must be collected out of the Word. and while it is being collected, the man must be in enlightenment from the Lord. ...It is to be known that the internal sense of the Word contains the genuine Doctrine of the Church" (n. 9424). As long as the Writings are regarded as the Doctrine of the Church, it cannot possibly be rationally seen that they are the Word. The fact that it is not rationally seen that the Writings are the Third Testament of the Word of God, that is Divine Truth in ultimates and therefore containing in an absolutely Divine letter the entire fullness of all Divine, celestial, spiritual, and natural truths, is the chief reason why the Divine essence of the Doctrine of the Church cannot be seen.

  From the preceding general considerations it may now be clear that in the purpose surmised by the reviewer all that is essential in DE HEMELSCHE LEER has been entirely overlooked, so much so in fact, that between the review and the articles to be reviewed there is no real connection at all. This will now further be confirmed with reference to the particulars of the review.

  Page 3, line 17.  The "crowning thesis" of the studies referred to . . . The passage referred to in DE HEMELSCHE LEER reads as follows: "The crowning thesis of the belief that the Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg are the Word of God, is that the DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE must also be applied to these Writings" {First Fasc., p. 5).

  Page 3, line 20.  Thus the Writings, being full of natural ideas . . . This argument has been used in DE HEMELSCHE LEER only as a confirmation and as of an incidental nature. The way in which it is here quoted gives the impression that this was the fundamental thought from which DE HEMELSCHE LEER arrived at its position. The article At the first Appearing of "DE HEMELSCHE LEER" from which it is quoted, through incidental circumstances, came to be placed at the beginning of the published series of articles, while the articles containing the fundamental argument which in time preceded, follow in the published series. Although the argument is of great importance as a confirmation, it is nevertheless clear that from this alone

 

147             REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON 

 

the view of DE HEMELSCHE LEER does not follow convincingly. It is self-evident that a review should have taken into account the historical development of the different articles, whereas the reviewer apparently after reading the first few  pages arrived at a settled  conviction,  and has later on overlooked all the essential part which followed in the publication, although in reality it preceded. It will appear further on in these remarks that he does not notice the proper fundamental explanations with a single word.

  Page 3, line 2.  The spiritual sense, thus drawn forth . . . The spiritual sense lies concealed in natural representations both in the letter of the Latin Word and in the letter of the Doctrine of the Church (First Fasc., pp. 69, 121).

  Page 4, line 6.  . . . that with this view it can now "for the first time be rationally understood that the Writings are the Word". If one regards the Writings as the Doctrine of the Church, one cannot possibly rationally understand that they are the Word. From the divergence of the opinions of the various writers quoted by the reviewer himself it clearly appears that a convincing rational concept in this respect has not yet been arrived at. Rev. C. Th. Odhner, like many others, regarded the Writings as "the Word such as it is in the heavens", but he denied that the Writings are the Word, and also said that they should not be called the Word (N. CH. L. 1902: 164). Although in our times the number of those who are willing to regard the Writings as a letter of the Word has increased, there are still many, and indeed among the leading priests of the Church, who wish to maintain the difference between "the letter of the Word", by which they understand the Old and the New Testament, and "the Heavenly Doctrines", by which they understand the Writings. On the official Calendar of the GENERAL CHURCH we read in this very year: "GENERAL CHURCH OF THE NEW JERUSALEM, 1931, Daily Readings from the Word of the Lord and from the Heavenly Doctrines of the New Jerusalem". That the idea of those who wish to regard the Writings as a letter of the Word is not based on a rational concept but only on a general perception,  will  clearly  appear  from what  follows.  That the Writings are the Word has been shown to the rational thought by H. D. G. GROENEVELD in his address The

 

148                  REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

Coming of the Lord for Conjunction with the Church, published in the Monthly DE WARE CHRISTELIJKE GODSDIENST, 1929: 3845. * This argument has been further developed by him in his address, The Coming of the Lord in the Doctrine of the Church (First fasc., pp. 3843, elucidated on pp. 8-295; 127131). This argument the reviewer has not noticed with one single word.

  Page 4, line 9.  - . . [that the Church now] "for the first time" will be able "to develop the Doctrine concerning the Holy Spirit in its real importance". It has been shown in DE HEMELSCHE LEER that the Third Testament is the Word from which the Holy Spirit proceeds (H. D. Gr. GROENEVELD, first fasc.. p. 42, compare p. 130). The proper receptacle of the Holy Spirit, however, does not lie in the scientifics and natural cognitions, and not in the first rational, come into existence by the influx of the Lord into the affection of those cognitions; nor even in the exterior or spiritual rational, come into existence by the influx of the Lord into the first rational, but for the first time in the interior rational or the rational of the celestial man (First Fasc., p. 89). Where the Latin Word has been opened to the interior rational, that is, to the celestial sense, there is a receptacle of the Holy Spirit, and consequently the proper dwelling-place of the Holy Spirit with man is there. In the lower degrees the Holy Spirit is not immediately present,  but only  by  an  unconscious  influx.  This fundamental argument in which it is shown when the Doctrine concerning the Holy Spirit can be developed in its real importance, has not been noticed by the reviewer with a single word. The Doctrine concerning the Holy Spirit makes inseparably one with the Doctrine concerning Enlightenment and with the Doctrine concerning the Doctrine of the Church; and where there is no Doctrine concerning Enlightenment and no Doctrine concerning the Doctrine of the Church, there too the Doctrine concerning the Holy Spirit has not been developed in its real importance. We read in THE TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION: "The Divine power and operation which is understood by the sending of the Holy  Spirit, is ... enlightenment and

  * An English translation of this address will appear in the Third Fascicle of the English edition of DE HEMELSCHE LEER.

 

149            REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON 

 

instruction. The Lord operates those powers in those who believe in Him" (n. 138 : III, IV); and in the CANONS OF THE NEW CHURCH: "The Divine, proceeding, which is called the Holy Spirit, in the proper sense is the Holy Word, and there the Divine Truth" (The Holy Spirit. Unwersalia VI); "Thus the Holy of God, which is called the Holy Spirit, flows in order into the Heavens; immediately into the supreme Heaven, which is called the third; immediately and also mediately into the middle Heaven, which is called the second; similarly into the ultimate Heaven, which is called the first" (3 : 2); "Therefore the Holy, which is understood by the Holy Spirit, does never inhere; and it does not remain, except so long as the man who receives it and believes in the Lord, is both in the Doctrine of truth out of the Word and in a life according to it" (4 : 4); "The clergyman, because tie is to teach the Doctrine out of the Word concerning the Lord, and concerning redemption and salvation from Him, is to be inaugurated by the promise of the Holy Spirit, and by the representation of its transfer; but it is received by the clergyman according to the faith of his life" (4 : 7); "The Divine, which is understood by the Holy Spirit, proceeds from the Lord through the clergy to the laity by preachings, according to the reception of the Doctrine of truth thence" (4 : 8); "That to him who speaks a word against the Son of Man it is remitted, is because to him who denies this and that to be Divine truth out of the Word in the Church, it is remitted; if only he believes that in the Word and out of the Word are the Divine truths. The Son of M\an is the Divine Truth out of the Word in the Church; and this cannot be seen by all" (5 : 9).

  Page 4, line 19.  Rev. W. H. Acton. The passage referred to reads: "... clothed in rational appearances such as exist in the light of heaven". The distance between the appearances of the letter and the appearances such as exist in the light of Heaven, is immeasurable. It is evident that the fact of the difference between the exterior-natural-rational appearances  of the letter, the interior-natural-rational appearances of the internal-historical sense, the exterior-rational appearances of the spiritual sense, and the interior-rational appearances of the celestial sense was not noticed by Rev. W. H. Acton. still less the essence of that difference.

 

150              REPLY TO THE REV. PROF. DR. ALFRED ACTON

 

And yet there is no relation between those discrete degrees of appearances except that of correspondence. It is noteworthy that Rev. W. H. Acton in an article which appeared in the NEW CHURCH QUARTERLY, January 1915, made an effort to prove that the Writings are not the Word.

  Page 45.  Rev. E. S. Hyatt. Rev. Theodore Pitcairn has shown that Rev. Hyatt went further than any other priest in the development of the concept of the difference between the Writings as the letter of the Word and the Doctrine of the Church out of that Word, although the great difficulties of the problem, and the fact that his attention was chiefly directed to the refutation of the attacks from CONVENTION against the Doctrine that the Writings are the Word, prevented him from then already seeing the full consequences of his position (See here above, pp. 30 32). It is not in agreement with the facts that Rev. Hyatt's view was met in the Church "with the silence of approval" (See N. CH. L. 1931 : 29).

  Page 5, footnote.  As is readily seen, he is mistaken. however ... The postscript on page 131 of the First Fascicle of DE HEMELSCHE LEER only says that Rev. Hyatt as long as forty years ago advocated the truth that the DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE should also be fully applied to the Writings. This postscript was placed there at the request of Rev. Theodore Pitcairn who wished that Rev. Hyatt's work should be noticed in the English edition of DE HEMELSCHE LEER. The writers in DE HEMELSCHE LEER became acquainted with NEW CHURCH TIDINGS and with the typewritten sermons of Rev. Hyatt only after their articles had been published. This acquaintance filled them with great admiration and showed them that Rev. Hyatt's mode of thought formed a great exception to the mode of thought not only of all his contemporaries but also of all the present writers in the New Church.

 Page 6.  Bishop W. F. Pendleton. The articles from which these passages have been quoted are a defense against the attacks from CONVENTION against the Doctrine that the Writings are the Word. These attacks were founded on the false reasoning that since the Word has been written in correspondences and representations, and the Writings (as was then taken to be self-evident) have not been written

 

NEXT PAGES

INDEX 

 

                                                               

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source pages

Authors: Leon James &  Diane Nahl Webmaster: I.J. Thompson